The International Space Station is derived from a NASA project called Freedom.
Freedom was A space station envisioned in the 1980s After the Apollo lunar crew landing program ended, mainly due to budget constraints. By that time, humanity had already landed on the moon at six different occasions (Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 in 1969, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15 in 1971, and Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 in 1972), so space agencies turned to developing a manned space station To conduct research, through which observations of celestial and terrestrial bodies are made, as a transport and service node for spacecraft and satellites, and to serve as a staging ground for deep space exploration, including exploration of Mars and the possibility of a manned mission to Mars.
In this sense, a permanently manned space station can serve as a “test spacecraft” to assess the possibility of carrying out long-term operations in space (as in the case of Journey to Marswhich would take about nine months for each direction).
In fact, astronauts often conduct scientific research in astronomy, astrobiology, physics, space weather, space medicine, and other fields at the International Space Station’s microgravity laboratories.
The multipurpose and multidisciplinary laboratories on the International Space Station are:
- ISS National Laboratory (USA)
- Columbus (Europe)
- Japanese Experiment Unit (JEM), also known as “Kibo” (Japan)
It is believed that astronauts on the International Space Station have conducted about 3,000 scientific experiments by 2020. Among the most famous experiments conducted on the International Space Station are:
- A particle physics experiment called “Alpha Magnetic Spectrometry” Detection of antimatter In cosmic rays (antiprotons and positrons).
- Investigations into the effects of long-term space exposure on the human body, such as the “Twins Study,” an experiment on twin astronauts Scott and Mark Kelly. Scott Kelly spent nearly a year in space while his twin brother Mark remained on Earth. NASA compared all the physiological, molecular, and cognitive changes in the twins after that period, and discovered that Scott Kelly had experienced changes in the microbiome (the bacteria in the gut), DNA damage (possibly due to radiation), and the wall of the carotid artery. Thickening, high protein that regulates water absorption, fluid shifts, Aging is slowed down.
- Earth observation remote sensing experiments, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3, which measures the amount of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere from above.
Here’s the answer: The International Space Station has Two bathrooms with space toiletswhich have been specifically designed to operate in zero gravity conditions.
Basically, when you lift the lid of the space toilet, you activate the airflow that prevents solid and liquid waste from flying out. Instead, the airflow pulls waste away from the user’s body into various receptacles.