Advanced 3D porous carbon materials for wave absorption

Professors Jiurong Liu and Zhihui Zeng from Shandong University published a language review paper China flag Materials On carbon-based porous three-dimensional electromagnetic wave absorbing materials.

The different preparations and optimization strategies of 3D carbon EWAMs are summarized in this figure. Image Credit: Science China Press

The establishment of high-performance EWAMs has emerged as a research priority due to electromagnetic wave (EMW) pollution, which is becoming an increasingly serious problem.

Carbon-based EWAMs exhibit great physical and chemical stability as well as significant dielectric losses due to their high electrical conductivity. In EMW adsorption, 3D porous carbon-based EWAMs have been very successful.

3D porous structures are expected to meet the target “Low Density, Thin Thickness, Wide Absorption Bandwidth, Strong Absorption” By greatly reducing material density, enhancing multiple reflection and EMW dispersion, and improving impedance matching.

In this review, the authors first address relevant theoretical underpinnings and assessment techniques, including different EMW adsorption mechanisms, performance indicators for EWAMs, and carbon-based EWAM modification techniques.

The most recent research findings of 3D carbon-based EWAMs were then summarized, using the origin of the material as the primary guiding principle. At the same time, many distinctive and original viewpoints were also brought to light.

These materials were first separated into graphene materials, biomass-derived materials, polymer-derived materials, and other materials. Graphene materials have high conductivity, low density, and strong absorption of electromagnetic waves.

However, their use is limited by their fragile construction, improper resistance, and high cost. Although biomass is a cheap and easily accessible feedstock, it is difficult to ensure the consistency of the performance of its products.

Porous carbon made from polymers and other synthetic materials is more suitable for mass production, but they still have drawbacks, including impedance mismatch. Therefore, each of these materials has advantages and disadvantages.

Finally, the authors discuss current problems of 3D carbon-based EWAMs and future research directions. They believed that recent research in this area had yielded important results.

More was done to increase the adaptability and usefulness of the materials. There have also been applications for some of the new materials, such as biopolymers. Computer technology has made it easier for researchers to understand the mechanisms of EMW absorption and the applicability of EWAMs.

These substances are not currently produced in large quantities. Material synthesis is still necessary to improve the overall performance of carbon-based EWAMs. Importantly, more research is needed on related theories.

To encourage additional studies and advance the creation of high-performance EWAMs, the authors of this review hope to serve as an inspiration.

magazine reference

Han, M., et al. (2022) Recent advances in three-dimensional porous carbon materials for electromagnetic wave absorption. China physical sciences. doi: 10.1007/s40843-022-2153-7.