Fast 60 Prozent der Menschen in den USA hatten Covid-19 • Earth.com

Laut einem neuen Bericht der Zentren für die Kontrolle und Prävention von Krankheiten (CDC) waren bis Februar 2022 bereits fast 60 Prozent der Menschen in den Vereinigten Staaten mit SARS-CoV-2 infiziert. Frühere Seroprävalenzstudien hatten gezeigt, dass bis Dezember 2021 etwa jeder dritte Amerikaner mindestens einmal an Covid-19 erkrankt war seit Beginn der Pandemie. Die neuesten Ergebnisse unterstreichen die extreme Ansteckungsgefahr der Omikron Variante und seine fulminante Passage durch jeden Winkel der Vereinigten Staaten.

Während die offiziellen Infektionszahlen immer zu niedrig sind – hauptsächlich aufgrund von Fehlern beim Testen und Erkennen leichter oder asymptomatischer Fälle oder aufgrund von Personen, die keine positiven Ergebnisse von Schnelltests zu Hause melden – können Seroprävalenz-Umfragen, wie sie von der CDC durchgeführt werden, hilfreich sein bessere Schätzungen darüber, wie viele Menschen sich tatsächlich mit dem Virus infiziert haben. „Wir wissen, dass die gemeldeten Fälle nur die Spitze des Eisbergs sind“, sagte Kristie Clarke, Co-Leiterin des Seroprävalenzteams der Covid-19 Epidemiology & Surveillance Taskforce der CDC.

Den neuesten Daten zur Seroprävalenz zufolge stieg die Zahl der Infektionen mit dem Aufkommen der Omicron-Variante dramatisch an, obwohl die Hospitalisierungs- und Todesraten etwas niedriger blieben als bei früheren Wellen. Die Wissenschaftler fanden große Unterschiede in den kumulativen Infektionsraten nach Altersgruppen, die widerspiegeln, wie viel Interaktion Menschen in verschiedenen Altersgruppen miteinander hatten.

So stieg von Dezember 2021 bis Februar 2022 die Seroprävalenz bei Kindern im Alter von 11 Jahren oder jünger und Jugendlichen im Alter von 12 bis 17 Jahren dramatisch an, von 44,2 auf 75,2 Prozent bzw. 45,6 auf 74,2 Prozent. Bei Erwachsenen im Alter von 18 bis 49 Jahren stieg die Seroprävalenz während des Omicron-Anstiegs von 36,5 auf 63,7 Prozent und bei Personen im Alter von 50 bis 64 Jahren von 28,8 auf 49,8 Prozent. Bei Senioren über 65 stieg die Seroprävalenz von 19,1 auf 33,2 Prozent, was höchstwahrscheinlich die erhöhten Vorsichtsmaßnahmen widerspiegelt, die ältere Menschen in dieser Zeit noch gegen Covid ergriffen haben.

Während diese beeindruckenden Zahlen viele Menschen glauben lassen könnten, dass die Vereinigten Staaten auf eine Herdenimmunität zusteuern, hat das Auftauchen von Omicron Ende letzten Jahres bereits bewiesen, dass SARS-CoV-2 auf eine Weise mutieren kann, die eine zuvor erworbene Immunität umgehen könnte.

„Infektionsinduzierte Antikörper zu haben, bedeutet nicht unbedingt, dass Sie vor einer zukünftigen Infektion geschützt sind“, warnte Dr. Clarke. „Noch wissen wir nicht, wie lange die infektionsbedingte Immunität anhalten wird, und wir können aus der Studie nicht noch einmal wissen, ob alle positiv auf SARS-CoV-2-Antikörper getesteten Personen weiterhin vor ihrer früheren Infektion geschützt sind.“

„Wir glauben, dass es in der Gemeinschaft einen großen Schutz sowohl vor Impfungen als auch vor Auffrischung und vor früheren Infektionen gibt“, fügte CDC-Direktorin Rochelle Walensky hinzu. “Trotzdem können wir nicht genug betonen, dass wir diejenigen, die nachweisbare Antikörper von einer Infektion haben, trotzdem ermutigen, sich impfen zu lassen.”

Den neuesten Seroprävalenzbericht der CDC finden Sie hier hier.

Von Andrej Ionescu, Earth.com Angestellter Autor

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tag.src=”https://amplify.outbrain.com/cp/obtp.js”;rn tag.type=”text/javascript”;rn var script = _document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];rn script.parentNode.insertBefore(tag, script);rn }(window, document);rnrn obApi(‘track’, ‘PAGE_VIEW’);rnu003c/scriptu003e”,”ad”:””},”sidebar”:””,”sidebar-2″:””},”earthpedia-article”:{“header”:{“script”:”u003c!– Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript type=”text/javascript”u003ern window._tfa = window._tfa || [];rn window._tfa.push({notify: ‘event’, name: ‘page_view’, id: 1356009});rn !function (t, f, a, x) {rn if (!document.getElementById(x)) {rn t.async = 1;t.src = a;t.id=x;f.parentNode.insertBefore(t, f);rn }rn }(document.createElement(‘script’),rn document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0],rn ‘//cdn.taboola.com/libtrc/unip/1356009/tfa.js’,rn ‘tb_tfa_script’);rnu003c/scriptu003ernu003c!– End of Taboola Pixel Code –u003ernu003cscript data-obct type = “text/javascript”u003ern /** DO NOT MODIFY THIS CODE**/rn !function(_window, _document) {rn var 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This site is optimized with the Yoast SEO Premium plugin v17.0 (Yoast SEO v17.0) – https://yoast.com/wordpress/plugins/seo/ –u003enu003ctitleu003eNearly 60 percent of people in the US have had Covid-19 u0026bull; Earth.comu003c/titleu003enu003cmeta name=”description” content=”studies had shown that by December 2021, approximately one out of three Americans had Covid-19 at least once since the beginning of the pandemic” /u003enu003cmeta name=”robots” content=”index, follow, max-snippet:-1, max-image-preview:large, max-video-preview:-1″ /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:locale” content=”en_US” /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:type” content=”article” /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:title” content=”Nearly 60 percent of people in the US have had Covid-19″ /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:description” content=”Nearly 60 percent of people in the US have had Covid-19 u0026bull; Earth.com” /u003enu003cmeta property=”og:url” 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Covid-19″,”datePublished”:”2022-04-30T12:05:00+00:00″,”dateModified”:”2022-04-30T14:29:32+00:00″,”mainEntityOfPage”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/news/nearly-60-percent-of-people-in-the-us-have-had-covid-19/#webpage”},”wordCount”:465,”image”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/news/nearly-60-percent-of-people-in-the-us-have-had-covid-19/#primaryimage”},”thumbnailUrl”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/30060140/Covid-2-scaled.jpg”,”inLanguage”:”en-US”,”copyrightYear”:”2022″,”copyrightHolder”:{“@id”:”https://www.earth.com/#organization”}},{“@type”:”Person”,”@id”:”https://www.earth.com/#/schema/person/58fcc0c23ef9ad66357f2b570e7c01a9″,”name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”image”:{“@type”:”ImageObject”,”@id”:”https://www.earth.com/#personlogo”,”inLanguage”:”en-US”,”url”:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=96u0026d=mmu0026r=g”,”contentUrl”:”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=96u0026d=mmu0026r=g”,”caption”:”Andrei Ionescu”},”sameAs”:[“http://earth.com”],”url”:”https://www.earth.com/author/aionescu/”}]}u003c/scriptu003enu003c!– / Yoast SEO Premium plugin. –u003e”},”__N_SSP”:true,”pageProps”:{“article”:{“post”:{“ID”:1908223,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2022-04-30 06:05:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-04-30 12:05:00″,”post_content”:”nu003cpu003eAccording to a new report released by the u003ca href=”https://www.cdc.gov/”u003eCenters for Disease Control and Preventionu003c/au003e (CDC), nearly 60 percent of people in the United States have already been infected with SARS-CoV-2 by February 2022. Previous seroprevalence studies had shown that by December 2021, approximately one out of three Americans had Covid-19 at least once since the beginning of the pandemic. The latest results highlight the extreme contagiousness of the u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/omicron-high-transmissibility-and-chance-for-reinfection/”u003eOmicronu003c/au003e variant and its fulminant passage through every corner of the United States.u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003eWhile official infection numbers are always going to be an undercount u0026#8211; mostly due to failures to test and detect mild or asymptomatic cases, or people not reporting positive results of at-home rapid tests u0026#8211; seroprevalance surveys such as those conducted by the CDC can help provide better estimates of how many people have actually contracted the virus. “We know that the reported cases are just the tip of the iceberg,” said Kristie Clarke, co-leader of CDC’s Covid-19 Epidemiology u0026amp; Surveillance Taskforce Seroprevalence Team.u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003eAccording to the latest seroprevalence data, with the emergence of the Omicron variant, the number of infections increased dramatically, although hospitalization and death rates remained slightly lower than in previous surges. The scientists found vast differences in cumulative infection rates by age group, which reflect how much interaction people in different age groups had with one another.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003eu003cdiv class=”PrebidAdSlot_prebidIncontentSlot__2XOy7 PrebidAdSlot_desktopAd__HjuWa” data-reactroot=””u003eu003cdiv id=”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-1-para-inj-0″ class=”pb-slot ” data-parent-div-id=”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-1″ style=”min-width:728px;min-height:90px”u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptu003en (function() {n const observerConfig = {n rootMargin: ‘1200px 0px 1200px 0px’,n threshold: 0n }n const observer = new IntersectionObserver(entries =u003e {n entries.forEach(entry =u003e {n if (entry u0026u0026n entry.isIntersecting u0026u0026n entry.intersectionRatio u003e 0) { // in viewn window.tude = window.tude || { cmd: [] };n window.tude.cmd.push(function() {n tude.refreshAdsViaDivMappings([n { divId: ‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-1-para-inj-0’, baseDivId: ‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-1’ }n ]);n observer.unobserve(entry.target);n });n }n });n }, observerConfig);n const div = document.getElementById(‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-1-para-inj-0’);n if (div) {n observer.observe(div);n }n }());n u003c/scriptu003eu003c/divu003eu003cdiv class=”PrebidAdSlot_prebidIncontentSlot__2XOy7 PrebidAdSlot_mobileAd__JpW4z” data-reactroot=””u003eu003cdiv id=”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-1-para-inj-0″ class=”pb-slot ” data-parent-div-id=”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-1″ style=”min-width:300px;min-height:250px”u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptu003en (function() {n const observerConfig = {n rootMargin: ‘1200px 0px 1200px 0px’,n threshold: 0n }n const observer = new IntersectionObserver(entries =u003e {n entries.forEach(entry =u003e {n if (entry u0026u0026n entry.isIntersecting u0026u0026n entry.intersectionRatio u003e 0) { // in viewn window.tude = window.tude || { cmd: [] };n window.tude.cmd.push(function() {n tude.refreshAdsViaDivMappings([n { divId: ‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-1-para-inj-0’, baseDivId: ‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-1’ }n ]);n observer.unobserve(entry.target);n });n }n });n }, observerConfig);n const div = document.getElementById(‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-1-para-inj-0’);n if (div) {n observer.observe(div);n }n }());n u003c/scriptu003eu003c/divu003ennnnu003cpu003eThus, from December 2021 to February 2022, seroprevalence among children aged 11 or younger and adolescents aged 12 to 17 increased dramatically, from 44.2 to 75.2 percent, and 45.6 to 74.2 percent, respectively. Among adults aged 18 to 49, seroprevalence rose from 36.5 to 63.7 percent during the Omicron surge, and from 28.8 to 49.8 percent among people aged 50-64. For seniors older than 65, seroprevalence increased from 19.1 to 33.2 percent, reflecting most probably the increased precautions older people still took against Covid during that period.u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003eWhile these impressive numbers could make many people think that the United States is heading towards herd immunity, the emergence of Omicron at the end of last year has already proven that SARS-CoV-2 can mutate in ways that could evade previously acquired immunity.u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003e“Having infection-induced antibodies does not necessarily mean you are protected against future infection,” warned Dr. Clarke. “We still do not know how long infection-induced immunity will last, and we cannot know from the study again whether all the people who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies continue to have protection from their prior infection.”u003c/pu003eu003cdiv class=”PrebidAdSlot_prebidIncontentSlot__2XOy7 PrebidAdSlot_desktopAd__HjuWa” data-reactroot=””u003eu003cdiv id=”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-2-para-inj-1″ class=”pb-slot ” data-parent-div-id=”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-2″ style=”min-width:728px;min-height:90px”u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptu003en (function() {n const observerConfig = {n rootMargin: ‘1200px 0px 1200px 0px’,n threshold: 0n }n const observer = new IntersectionObserver(entries =u003e {n entries.forEach(entry =u003e {n if (entry u0026u0026n entry.isIntersecting u0026u0026n entry.intersectionRatio u003e 0) { // in viewn window.tude = window.tude || { cmd: [] };n window.tude.cmd.push(function() {n tude.refreshAdsViaDivMappings([n { divId: ‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-2-para-inj-1’, baseDivId: ‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-2’ }n ]);n observer.unobserve(entry.target);n });n }n });n }, observerConfig);n const div = document.getElementById(‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-2-para-inj-1’);n if (div) {n observer.observe(div);n }n }());n u003c/scriptu003eu003c/divu003eu003cdiv class=”PrebidAdSlot_prebidIncontentSlot__2XOy7 PrebidAdSlot_mobileAd__JpW4z” data-reactroot=””u003eu003cdiv id=”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-2-para-inj-1″ class=”pb-slot ” data-parent-div-id=”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-2″ style=”min-width:300px;min-height:250px”u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptu003en (function() {n const observerConfig = {n rootMargin: ‘1200px 0px 1200px 0px’,n threshold: 0n }n const observer = new IntersectionObserver(entries =u003e {n entries.forEach(entry =u003e {n if (entry u0026u0026n entry.isIntersecting u0026u0026n entry.intersectionRatio u003e 0) { // in viewn window.tude = window.tude || { cmd: [] };n window.tude.cmd.push(function() {n tude.refreshAdsViaDivMappings([n { divId: ‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-2-para-inj-1’, baseDivId: ‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-2’ }n ]);n observer.unobserve(entry.target);n });n }n });n }, observerConfig);n const div = document.getElementById(‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-2-para-inj-1’);n if (div) {n observer.observe(div);n }n }());n u003c/scriptu003eu003c/divu003ennnnu003cpu003e“We do believe there is a lot of protection in the community both from vaccination as well as from boosting and from prior infection,” added CDC Director Rochelle Walensky. “That said, we cannot underscore enough, those who have detectable antibodies from infection, we still encourage them to get vaccinated.”u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003eCDC’s latest seroprevalence report can be found u003ca href=”https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/wr/mm7117e3.htm?s_cid=mm7117e3_w”u003ehereu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003ennnnu003cpu003eu0026#8212;u003c/pu003eu003cdiv class=”PrebidAdSlot_prebidIncontentSlot__2XOy7 PrebidAdSlot_desktopAd__HjuWa” data-reactroot=””u003eu003cdiv id=”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-3-para-inj-2″ class=”pb-slot ” data-parent-div-id=”pb-slot-desktop-incontent-3″ style=”min-width:728px;min-height:90px”u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptu003en (function() {n const observerConfig = {n rootMargin: ‘1200px 0px 1200px 0px’,n threshold: 0n }n const observer = new IntersectionObserver(entries =u003e {n entries.forEach(entry =u003e {n if (entry u0026u0026n entry.isIntersecting u0026u0026n entry.intersectionRatio u003e 0) { // in viewn window.tude = window.tude || { cmd: [] };n window.tude.cmd.push(function() {n tude.refreshAdsViaDivMappings([n { divId: ‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-3-para-inj-2’, baseDivId: ‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-3’ }n ]);n observer.unobserve(entry.target);n });n }n });n }, observerConfig);n const div = document.getElementById(‘pb-slot-desktop-incontent-3-para-inj-2’);n if (div) {n observer.observe(div);n }n }());n u003c/scriptu003eu003c/divu003eu003cdiv class=”PrebidAdSlot_prebidIncontentSlot__2XOy7 PrebidAdSlot_mobileAd__JpW4z” data-reactroot=””u003eu003cdiv id=”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-3-para-inj-2″ class=”pb-slot ” data-parent-div-id=”pb-slot-mobile-incontent-3″ style=”min-width:300px;min-height:250px”u003eu003c/divu003eu003cscriptu003en (function() {n const observerConfig = {n rootMargin: ‘1200px 0px 1200px 0px’,n threshold: 0n }n const observer = new IntersectionObserver(entries =u003e {n entries.forEach(entry =u003e {n if (entry u0026u0026n entry.isIntersecting u0026u0026n entry.intersectionRatio u003e 0) { // in viewn window.tude = window.tude || { cmd: [] };n window.tude.cmd.push(function() {n tude.refreshAdsViaDivMappings([n { divId: ‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-3-para-inj-2’, baseDivId: ‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-3’ }n ]);n observer.unobserve(entry.target);n });n }n });n }, observerConfig);n const div = document.getElementById(‘pb-slot-mobile-incontent-3-para-inj-2’);n if (div) {n observer.observe(div);n }n }());n u003c/scriptu003eu003c/divu003ennnnu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:andrei.ionescu5891@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eAndrei Ionescuu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003en”,”post_title”:”Nearly 60 percent of people in the US have had Covid-19″,”post_excerpt”:” studies had shown that by December 2021, approximately one out of three Americans had Covid-19 at least once since the beginning of the pandemic”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”nearly-60-percent-of-people-in-the-us-have-had-covid-19″,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-04-30 08:29:32″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-04-30 14:29:32″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1908223″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”thumbnail”:”u003cimg src=”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/30060140/Covid-2-960×640.jpg” class=”img-fluid h-100 wp-post-image” alt=”” loading=”lazy” srcset=”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/30060140/Covid-2-960×640.jpg 960w, https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/30060140/Covid-2-300×199.jpg 300w, https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/30060140/Covid-2-450×300.jpg 450w, https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/30060140/Covid-2-270×180.jpg 270w, https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/30060140/Covid-2-360×240.jpg 360w” sizes=”(max-width: 960px) 100vw, 960px” /u003e”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:”http://earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”formatted_date”:”04-30-2022″},”sidebar”:[{“ID”:1908227,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2022-04-30 13:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-04-30 19:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eChildren younger than 12 can identify their mothers’ voices with extremely high accuracy. Moreover, rather than cuing only their brains’ auditory-processing networks, the specific sound of these voices activates many other key neural areas, including reward centers, emotion-processing regions, visual processing centers, and neural networks parsing which incoming information is salient. u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eHowever, a new study led by u003ca href=”https://med.stanford.edu/”u003eStanford Medicineu003c/au003e has found that around age 13, children’s u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/our-brain-has-an-alert-system-to-shut-down-unwanted-memories/”u003ebrainsu003c/au003e shift from focusing on their mothers’ voices to favor new voices, as a part of a biological signal driving them to separate from their parents and enlarge their social spheres.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Just as an infant knows to tune into her mother’s voice, an adolescent knows to tune into novel voices,” said study lead author Daniel Abrams, an associate professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford. “As a teen, you don’t know you’re doing this. You’re just being you: You’ve got your friends and new companions and you want to spend time with them. Your mind is increasingly sensitive to and attracted to these unfamiliar voices.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eBy analyzing fMRI scans of teenagers’ brains recorded while they listened to their mothers’ voices and several unfamiliar ones, the researchers discovered that, although teens’ brains were more receptive to all voices (including their mothers’) than those of younger children, in teenagers aged 13 or older, the reward circuits and the brain networks that prioritize important stimuli were activated more strongly by unfamiliar voices than by those of their mothers. According to the scientists, the brain’s shift towards new voices is a sign of healthy maturation.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“A child becomes independent at some point, and that has to be precipitated by an underlying biological signal,” said study senior author Vinod Menon, a professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford. “That’s what we’ve uncovered: This is a signal that helps teens engage with the world and form connections which allow them to be socially adept outside their families.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAs Professor Abrams argues, the voices in our environment represent an extremely rewarding sound source, allowing us “to feel connected, included, part of a community, and part of a family.” Since children’s social interactions undergo major transformations during adolescence, revealing the neurobiological roots of these changes is essential not only for better understanding healthy maturation processes, but also for clarifying what goes wrong in children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the u003ca href=”https://www.jneurosci.org/content/early/2022/04/06/JNEUROSCI.2018-21.2022″u003eu003cemu003eJournal of Neuroscienceu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e.u003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:andrei.ionescu5891@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eAndrei Ionescuu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Teenagers start tuning out their mothers’ voices”,”post_excerpt”:”Children younger than 12 can identify their mothers’ voices with extremely high accuracy”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”teenagers-start-tuning-out-their-mothers-voices”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-04-30 13:40:14″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-04-30 19:40:14″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1908227″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”04-30-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/teenagers-start-tuning-out-their-mothers-voices/”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:”http://earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” 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loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/30133925/Teen-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1782,”file”:”2022/04/Teen-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Teen-300×209.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:209,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Teen-1024×713.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:713,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Teen-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Teen-768×535.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:535,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Teen-1536×1069.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1069,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Teen-2048×1426.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1426,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Teen-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Teen-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Teen-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Teen-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Teen-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Teen-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Teen-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Teen-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Teen-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Teen-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Teen-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Teen-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Teen-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Teen-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Teen.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”Children younger than 12 can identify their mothers’ voices with…”},{“ID”:1908225,”post_author”:”63″,”post_date”:”2022-04-30 08:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-04-30 14:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe latestu003ca href=”https://www.un.org/en/climatechange/reports?gclid=Cj0KCQjwjN-SBhCkARIsACsrBz6h_uH-xJnN2929g3CDEV9GZVLFEGh6KWfiNgneXUlf6d78n4Tlk24aAg3fEALw_wcB”u003e U.N. report on climate changeu003c/au003e has revealed that some measures of global warming are now unavoidable. A warming climate will lead to many impacts, such as a change in the frequency of flash flooding events, and the areas in which they occur.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe National Aeronautics and Space Administration describes this as a global problem, felt on local scales. Likewise, experts at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are providing theu003ca href=”https://www.noaa.gov/climate”u003e data, tools and informationu003c/au003e to better understand and prepare for climate change.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eA research team led by the u003ca href=”https://www.ou.edu/”u003eUniversity of Oklahomau003c/au003e has created simulations that demonstrate widespread increases of flash flooding events across most of the United States.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“This study builds upon the state-of-the-art model (EF5/CREST) that is jointly developed by researchers with OU, NASA, and NOAA’s National Severe Storms Laboratory and has initiated collaboration with National Center for Atmospheric Research climate scientists,” said study lead author Zhi Li. “It realizes the concept of ‘Digital Twin in Earth System Science,’ in which one is our living climate and the other one is our future. Climate change never became so real to me until we successfully collaborated on such research.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“There hasn’t been a real definitive study on what’s going to happen with flash floods in the future,” said study co-author Jonathan J. Gourley. “We didn’t have that robust of an observational record … so, this study helped to fill in that gap. By using some of the rainfall simulations from a convection-resolving climate model and then coupling with our high-resolution hydrologic modeling system, we can see what sort of flash floods would be produced in the future.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe research team used climate simulations and modeling of a 30-year period from 2070 to 2100. The effect, what the researchers call “flashiness,” describes the likelihood of weather conditions that cause rapid rainfall and lead to flash flooding.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe findings include the following:u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:list –u003enu003culu003eu003cliu003eIf emissions continued at their current rate, flooding events would become 8% “flashier” by the end of the century. This means that heavy rainfall events are likely to occur quickly and in concentrated areas that could lead to flooding.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eA more than 10% increase in flash flooding in the Southwest U.S. which accounts for the greatest increase in “flashiness” among hot spots.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eThe central U.S. is emerging as a new flash flood hotspot as well, with an 8.6% predicted increase.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003c/ulu003enu003c!– /wp:list –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eOverall, the study revealed that future flash flood-prone regions are moving northward. This means that more people will learn how to better live with these increased events, and also, how to survive.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“The 20-year return floods will more likely occur every two to five years, especially alarming for the emerging flashiness hotspots that will be facing unprecedented challenges with aging infrastructure and outdated flood risk measures. There is a pressing need to implement climate-resilient engineering infrastructure and develop smart hydrological early warning systems.” said study co-author Yang Hong.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers urge action, such as mitigation strategies, to curb these extreme climate impacts.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Now’s the time to start thinking about better flood defenses,” said Gourley. “Of course, decreasing greenhouse gas concentrations would be the ultimate solution, but in the meantime, we can think about ways to reduce vulnerabilities and improve flash flooding safety education.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe majority of fatalities during flash floods are caused by people entering flooded areas – most often from driving through a flooded roadway. The best way to stay safe during flash flooding events is to stay off the roads and avoid standing water.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe findings are published in the journal u003ca href=”https://www.nature.com/commsenv/”u003eu003cemu003eNature: Communications Earth and Environmentu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e.u003cemu003eu0026nbsp;u003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:katherinebucko@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eKatherine Buckou003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Flash floods are set to become much more common in the U.S.”,”post_excerpt”:”A warming climate will lead to many impacts, such as a change in the frequency of flash flooding events, and the areas in which they occur”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”flash-floods-are-set-to-become-much-more-common-in-the-u-s”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-04-30 08:41:58″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-04-30 14:41:58″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1908225″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”04-30-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/flash-floods-are-set-to-become-much-more-common-in-the-u-s/”,”author_name”:”Katherine Bucko”,”author_url”:”http://Earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fa2f663c6ba4d1329c53faa87073353d?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fa2f663c6ba4d1329c53faa87073353d?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/30084140/Flash-flood-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1696,”file”:”2022/04/Flash-flood-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-300×199.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:199,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-1024×678.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:678,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-768×509.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:509,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Flash-flood-1536×1017.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1017,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Flash-flood-2048×1356.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1356,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Flash-flood-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Flash-flood.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”The latest U.N. report on climate change has revealed that…”},{“ID”:1908223,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2022-04-30 06:05:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-04-30 12:05:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAccording to a new report released by the u003ca href=”https://www.cdc.gov/”u003eCenters for Disease Control and Preventionu003c/au003e (CDC), nearly 60 percent of people in the United States have already been infected with SARS-CoV-2 by February 2022. Previous seroprevalence studies had shown that by December 2021, approximately one out of three Americans had Covid-19 at least once since the beginning of the pandemic. The latest results highlight the extreme contagiousness of the u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/omicron-high-transmissibility-and-chance-for-reinfection/”u003eOmicronu003c/au003e variant and its fulminant passage through every corner of the United States.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eWhile official infection numbers are always going to be an undercount – mostly due to failures to test and detect mild or asymptomatic cases, or people not reporting positive results of at-home rapid tests – seroprevalance surveys such as those conducted by the CDC can help provide better estimates of how many people have actually contracted the virus. “We know that the reported cases are just the tip of the iceberg,” said Kristie Clarke, co-leader of CDC’s Covid-19 Epidemiology u0026amp; Surveillance Taskforce Seroprevalence Team.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAccording to the latest seroprevalence data, with the emergence of the Omicron variant, the number of infections increased dramatically, although hospitalization and death rates remained slightly lower than in previous surges. The scientists found vast differences in cumulative infection rates by age group, which reflect how much interaction people in different age groups had with one another.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThus, from December 2021 to February 2022, seroprevalence among children aged 11 or younger and adolescents aged 12 to 17 increased dramatically, from 44.2 to 75.2 percent, and 45.6 to 74.2 percent, respectively. Among adults aged 18 to 49, seroprevalence rose from 36.5 to 63.7 percent during the Omicron surge, and from 28.8 to 49.8 percent among people aged 50-64. For seniors older than 65, seroprevalence increased from 19.1 to 33.2 percent, reflecting most probably the increased precautions older people still took against Covid during that period.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eWhile these impressive numbers could make many people think that the United States is heading towards herd immunity, the emergence of Omicron at the end of last year has already proven that SARS-CoV-2 can mutate in ways that could evade previously acquired immunity.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Having infection-induced antibodies does not necessarily mean you are protected against future infection,” warned Dr. Clarke. “We still do not know how long infection-induced immunity will last, and we cannot know from the study again whether all the people who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies continue to have protection from their prior infection.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“We do believe there is a lot of protection in the community both from vaccination as well as from boosting and from prior infection,” added CDC Director Rochelle Walensky. “That said, we cannot underscore enough, those who have detectable antibodies from infection, we still encourage them to get vaccinated.”u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eCDC’s latest seroprevalence report can be found u003ca href=”https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/71/wr/mm7117e3.htm?s_cid=mm7117e3_w”u003ehereu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:andrei.ionescu5891@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eAndrei Ionescuu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Nearly 60 percent of people in the US have had Covid-19″,”post_excerpt”:” studies had shown that by December 2021, approximately one out of three Americans had Covid-19 at least once since the beginning of the pandemic”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”nearly-60-percent-of-people-in-the-us-have-had-covid-19″,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-04-30 08:29:32″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-04-30 14:29:32″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1908223″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”04-30-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/nearly-60-percent-of-people-in-the-us-have-had-covid-19/”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:”http://earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/30060140/Covid-2-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1700,”file”:”2022/04/Covid-2-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Covid-2-300×199.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:199,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Covid-2-1024×680.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:680,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Covid-2-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Covid-2-768×510.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:510,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Covid-2-1536×1020.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1020,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Covid-2-2048×1360.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1360,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Covid-2-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Covid-2-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Covid-2-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Covid-2-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Covid-2-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Covid-2-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Covid-2-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Covid-2-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Covid-2-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Covid-2-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Covid-2-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Covid-2-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Covid-2-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Covid-2-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Covid-2.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”According to a new report released by the Centers for…”},{“ID”:1908219,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2022-04-30 05:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-04-30 11:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eA new study led by the u003ca href=”https://www.icm.csic.es/ca”u003eInstitut de Ciències del Maru003c/au003e (ICM-CSIC) in Spain has found that climate change is accelerating the water cycle due to an increase in the evaporation of water from the seas and oceans caused by rises in u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/rising-surface-temperatures-are-speeding-up-ocean-currents/”u003etemperaturesu003c/au003e. This results in more water circulating in the atmosphere in its vapor form, 90 percent of which will precipitate back into the sea, while the remaining 10 percent will precipitate over the continent. The researchers predict that these changes in the water cycle could have major consequences on the global climate system.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“The acceleration of the water cycle has implications both at the ocean and on the continent, where storms could become increasingly intense. This higher amount of water circulating in the atmosphere could also explain the increase in rainfall that is being detected in some polar areas, where the fact that it is raining instead of snowing is speeding up the melting,” explained study lead authoru0026nbsp;Estrella Olmedo, an expert in Physical and Technological Oceanography at ICM-CSIC.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eDr. Olmedo and her colleagues have found that another important factor contributing to the acceleration in the water cycle is the decrease in the wind over some areas of the ocean, which favors stratification of the water column (water not mixing in the vertical direction).u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Where the wind is no longer so strong, the surface water warms up, but does not exchange heat with the water below, allowing the surface to become more saline than the lower layers and enabling the effect of evaporation to be observed with satellite measurements,” said study co-author Antonio Turiel, a senior scientist at ICM-CSIC. “This tells us that the atmosphere and the ocean interact in a stronger way than we imagined, with important consequences for the continental and polar areas.”u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers used satellite data to analyze ocean surface salinity. Unlike subsurface salinity data – which is collected with in situ instruments – the satellite data allowed them to detect more efficiently the acceleration in the water cycle and the effect of stratification over vast areas of the oceans.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“We have been able to see that surface salinity is showing an intensification of the water cycle that subsurface salinity does not. Specifically, in the Pacific we have seen that surface salinity decreases more slowly than subsurface salinity and, in this same region, we have observed an increase in sea surface temperature and a decrease in the intensity of winds and the depth of the mixing layer,” said Dr. Olmedo.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAccording to Dr. Turiel, ocean models must standardize the assimilation of satellite salinity data, in order to complement in situ data. This is crucial in order to make accurate predictions, particularly at the current time of climate crisis, when changes are occurring much faster than before.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=”https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-10265-1″u003eu003cemu003eNature Scientific Reportsu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e.u003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:andrei.ionescu5891@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eAndrei Ionescuu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Climate change is accelerating the water cycle”,”post_excerpt”:”The researchers predict that these changes in the water cycle could have major consequences on the global climate system.”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”climate-change-is-accelerating-the-water-cycle”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-04-30 05:27:31″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-04-30 11:27:31″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1908219″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”04-30-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/climate-change-is-accelerating-the-water-cycle/”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:”http://earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/30052653/Water-cycle-270×180.png”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:1545,”height”:838,”file”:”2022/04/Water-cycle.png”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-300×163.png”,”width”:300,”height”:163,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”large”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-1024×555.png”,”width”:1024,”height”:555,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-150×150.png”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-768×417.png”,”width”:768,”height”:417,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Water-cycle-1536×833.png”,”width”:1536,”height”:833,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-1400×838.png”,”width”:1400,”height”:838,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-960×640.png”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-640×480.png”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-454×282.png”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-450×300.png”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-350×210.png”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-425×375.png”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-125×88.png”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-270×180.png”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-32×32.png”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-360×240.png”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-730×410.png”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-230×280.png”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Water-cycle-230×260.png”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/png”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”0″,”keywords”:[]}},”trimmed_content”:”A new study led by the Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM-CSIC)…”},{“ID”:1908216,”post_author”:”63″,”post_date”:”2022-04-29 14:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-04-29 20:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAt first glance, metropolitan areas may appear to be devoid of wildlife, but that is far from the truth. Green spaces in large cities can serve as corridors or stepping stones for wild animals and even threatened mammal species.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn one of the most populous and densely urbanized cities in Brazil, a research team recorded a South American coati, a carnivore that lives on trees that feeds on small invertebrates and fruits. The species is classified as vulnerable in Rio Grande do Sul, mainly because of the loss of its forest habitats.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe Brazilian research team detected the animal using a camera trap during a Masters research project conducted at the Canoas Airbase, one of the last green spaces remaining in the municipality.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eFinding a coati in the middle of a dense, urban area surprised them. While the species is not considered threatened in the majority of its area of distribution, the coati population has been in a state of decline as a result of habitat loss and hunting.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”This record confirms the capacity of this species to use environments that have been changed by anthropic activity. In urban areas, the availability of anthropic food resources can favor the establishment of species with greater plasticity,” wrote the researchers.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”Conversely, proximity of humans can also cause conflicts and threats to wildlife and increases the likelihood of diseases transmitted by domesticated animals, such as cats and dogs.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAccording to the study authors, this record is worthy of note because it refers to an urban area where coatis were believed to be extinct, in the only Brazilian state in which the species is threatened. The discovery highlights the importance of urban green spaces for wildlife conservation.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”It highlights the importance of urban green spaces for wildlife conservation, since these spaces can furnish corridors or stepping-stones, enabling migration and reducing isolation of populations in increasingly fragmented landscapes,” wrote the researchers. “This is very important for defining appropriate conservation measurements for endangered species, especially beyond protected areas.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study – a partnership between the Canoas Airbase andu003ca href=”https://www.lasalle.edu/”u003e La Salle Universityu003c/au003e – was led by Dr. Cristina Vargas Cademartori.u0026nbsp; The findings are published in the open access journal u003ca href=”https://neotropical.pensoft.net/”u003eu003cemu003eNeotropical Biology and Conservationu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:katherinebucko@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eKatherine Buckou003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Green spaces are a critical refuge for threatened species”,”post_excerpt”:”The species is classified as vulnerable in Rio Grande do Sul, mainly because of the loss of its forest habitats.”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”green-spaces-are-a-critical-refuge-for-threatened-species”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-04-29 14:38:31″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-04-29 20:38:31″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1908216″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”04-29-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/green-spaces-are-a-critical-refuge-for-threatened-species/”,”author_name”:”Katherine Bucko”,”author_url”:”http://Earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fa2f663c6ba4d1329c53faa87073353d?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fa2f663c6ba4d1329c53faa87073353d?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/29143738/Coati-270×180.png”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:1545,”height”:985,”file”:”2022/04/Coati.png”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Coati-300×191.png”,”width”:300,”height”:191,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”large”:{“file”:”Coati-1024×653.png”,”width”:1024,”height”:653,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Coati-150×150.png”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Coati-768×490.png”,”width”:768,”height”:490,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Coati-1536×979.png”,”width”:1536,”height”:979,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Coati-1400×850.png”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Coati-960×640.png”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Coati-640×480.png”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Coati-454×282.png”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Coati-450×300.png”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Coati-350×210.png”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Coati-425×375.png”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Coati-125×88.png”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Coati-270×180.png”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Coati-32×32.png”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Coati-360×240.png”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Coati-730×410.png”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Coati-230×280.png”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Coati-230×260.png”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/png”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”0″,”keywords”:[]}},”trimmed_content”:”At first glance, metropolitan areas may appear to be devoid…”},{“ID”:1908214,”post_author”:”63″,”post_date”:”2022-04-29 14:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-04-29 20:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eGuy German, a professor of Biomedical Engineering at u003ca href=”https://www.binghamton.edu/”u003eBinghamton Universityu003c/au003e, has published new research on the structure of human skin and the amount of damage it can sustain. The study reveals that human skin has evolved to allow maximum durability and flexibility.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eMost organisms have a tougher outer layer that can protect a more compliant inner layer from environmental threats. This exterior layer is present on u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/eat-a-handful-of-walnuts-every-day-for-better-heart-health/”u003enutsu003c/au003e, fruits, insects, and even microorganisms.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Mammalian skin offers maximum locomotion and maximum mechanical toughness,” said Professor German. “If it went one way, it would be less flexible, or the other way you would get more flexibility but less toughness. So it’s optimized.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe research team created membranes from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that allowed them to mimic the structure of skin by covering a soft layer with a thinner, stiffer outer layer.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThis “artificial skin” underwent a series of tests to see how much stress it could handle before breaking. When under the pressure of a sharp object, the samples indented to form huge divots before breaking. u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers made an interesting discovery – mammal skin has evolved to provide the toughest response to threats, such as sharp objects or blunt trauma, while remaining as flexible as possible.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“We found that when the artificial skin has the same outer (stratum corneum) and inner layer thickness (dermis) as mammalian skin, the rubber membranes maximized both their puncture toughness and deformability,” explained Professor German.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe team also discovered a new type of failure, called coring, that has not been previously observed. If you puncture a material, the fracture will begin below the indenter tip, just like piercing a piece of paper with a pencil. But with human skin, as well as the artificial skin, fracture occurs far from the indenter tip at large indentation depths. This is because rupture occurs where the membrane is stretched the greatest, on the sides of the divot, leaving a cylindrical core in the membrane.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThis knowledge could help with different technologies, such as electronics and medical devices, product packaging, bulletproof vest, and treatments for burn victims. Researching how human skin has evolved into its current form has become increasingly popular in recent years.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Scientists and engineers are attracted to studying skin because it’s difficult to understand,” said Professor German. “Skin is heterogeneous and structurally very complex.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers believe that the power of computers has helped us to better understand skin biomechanics: “Traditional materials like steel and cement are uniform in composition and easy to characterize. Nowadays, engineers are using their computational know-how to study really complex materials such as skin.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=”https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2022/sm/d1sm01187a”u003eu003cemu003eSoft Matteru003c/emu003eu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:katherinebucko@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eKatherine Buckou003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Human skin is the perfect balance of flexibility and durability”,”post_excerpt”:”The study reveals that human skin has evolved to allow maximum durability and flexibility.”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”human-skin-is-the-perfect-balance-of-flexibility-and-durability”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-04-29 14:16:07″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-04-29 20:16:07″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1908214″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”04-29-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/human-skin-is-the-perfect-balance-of-flexibility-and-durability/”,”author_name”:”Katherine Bucko”,”author_url”:”http://Earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fa2f663c6ba4d1329c53faa87073353d?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/fa2f663c6ba4d1329c53faa87073353d?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/29141349/Skin-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1705,”file”:”2022/04/Skin-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Skin-300×200.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:200,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Skin-1024×682.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:682,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Skin-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Skin-768×511.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:511,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Skin-1536×1023.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1023,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Skin-2048×1364.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1364,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Skin-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Skin-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Skin-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Skin-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Skin-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Skin-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Skin-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Skin-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Skin-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Skin-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Skin-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Skin-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Skin-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Skin-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Skin.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”Guy German, a professor of Biomedical Engineering at Binghamton University,…”},{“ID”:1908211,”post_author”:”13″,”post_date”:”2022-04-29 10:20:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-04-29 16:20:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe size of u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/animals-needed-for-seed-dispersal-are-the-first-victims-of-deforestation/”u003eanimalsu003c/au003e is often reflected in their vocalizations. For example, larger animals have longer vocal tracts that produce lower-pitched sounds. A new study from the u003ca href=”https://www.mpi.nl/”u003eMax Planck Institute for Psycholinguisticsu003c/au003e (MPI) has investigated why harbor seals are an exception to this rule.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers confirmed that harbor seals do not always look the way they sound. These animals often sound larger, which may be motivated by a desire to get more attention from their mothers or to impress a rival.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe experts wanted to know whether these animals are very good at learning sounds or if their vocal tracts have adapted to support their vocal flexibility.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”Acoustic allometry occurs when features of animal vocalizations can be predicted from body size measurements,” explained the study authors. “Despite this being considered the norm, allometry sometimes breaks, resulting in species sounding smaller or larger than expected for their size.”u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e”A recent hypothesis suggests that allometry-breaking mammals cluster into two groups: those with anatomical adaptations to their vocal tracts and those capable of learning new sounds (vocal learners). Here, we tested which mechanism is used to escape from acoustic allometry by probing vocal tract allometry in a proven mammalian vocal learner, the harbor seal.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eTo investigate, Koen de Reus and Andrea Ravignani of MPI collaborated with researchers from Sealcentre Pieterburen. The researchers measured the body sizes and vocal tracts of young harbor seals. The experts also reviewed harbor seal vocalizations that had been previously obtained.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers found that the length of vocal tracts matched the body sizes of the seals. Without an anatomical explanation, the experts concluded that the animals are using vocal learning to sound different from how they look.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Vocal learners will sound different from their body size, but the size of their vocal tracts will match their body size. The combined findings from acoustic and anatomical data may help us to identify more vocal learners,” explained de Reus. “Studying different vocal learners may help us to find the biological bases of vocal learning and shed light on the evolution of complex communication systems, such as speech.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“The more we look, the more we see that seals have something to say about human speech capacities,” said Ravignani.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the u003ca href=”https://journals.biologists.com/jeb”u003eu003cemu003eJournal of Experimental Biologyu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e.u003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003e-u003c/emu003eu003cemu003e–u003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”http://csexton@earth.com”u003eu003cemu003eChrissy Sextonu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Harbor seals use vocal learning to sound larger than they appear”,”post_excerpt”:”A new study from the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics (MPI) has investigated why harbor seals are an exception to this rule. “,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”harbor-seals-use-vocal-learning-to-sound-larger-than-they-appear”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-04-29 10:25:53″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-04-29 16:25:53″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1908211″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”04-29-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/harbor-seals-use-vocal-learning-to-sound-larger-than-they-appear/”,”author_name”:”Chrissy Sexton”,”author_url”:””,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/99e13e72878f1ac7d5eab2e249235cca?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/99e13e72878f1ac7d5eab2e249235cca?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/29101739/Harbor-seals-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1893,”file”:”2022/04/Harbor-seals-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-300×222.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:222,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-1024×757.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:757,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-768×568.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:568,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-1536×1136.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1136,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-2048×1514.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1514,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Harbor-seals-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Harbor-seals.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”The size of animals is often reflected in their vocalizations….”},{“ID”:1908207,”post_author”:”57″,”post_date”:”2022-04-29 09:35:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-04-29 15:35:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eBiological diversity is under threat all over the world. More and more species have shown dwindling population numbers in the past few decades as the effects of habitat destruction, overexploitation, invasion by alien species, pollution and climate change take hold. As a result, it has become increasingly necessary to monitor changes in biodiversity so that protection measures can be introduced before it is too late.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eOver the past 50 years, the global rate of u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/earths-oceans-are-on-track-for-a-catastrophic-extinction-event/”u003eextinctionu003c/au003e of species has accelerated, according to the 2019 report by the UN Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). In Catalonia in particular, the Living Planet Index reveals that there has been a 25 percent loss of wildlife in less than twenty years, as stated in the u003ca href=”https://mediambient.gencat.cat/web/.content/home/ambits_dactuacio/patrimoni_natural/sistemes_dinformacio/observatori-patrimoni-natural-biodiversitat/informe/estatgeneraldelabiodiversitatacatalunya-2020.pdf”u003ereport of the state of nature 2020u003c/au003e, published by the Department of Territory and Sustainability (DTES) of the Catalan Government.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Species are irreplaceable, they cannot be created nor repeated in an evolution process of millions of years. Therefore, conservation is essential for the functioning of ecosystems, and it is an ethical obligation too,” said lecturer Joan Real, head of theu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.ub.edu/biologiaconservacio/en/team/”u003eConservation Biology Groupu0026nbsp;u003c/au003eof theu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.ub.edu/portal/web/biology”u003eFaculty of Biologyu003c/au003eu0026nbsp;and member of the Biodiversity Research Institute (u003ca href=”http://www.ub.edu/irbio/home”u003eIRBiou003c/au003e) of the University of Barcelona. “Biodiversity, natural habitats and ecological processes bring a series of ecosystem services to society – natural resources, protection against natural disasters, etc. – and are necessary elements for the continuity of the human species.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eDespite the urgent need to keep track of biodiversity changes in natural habitats, this is often not done using standardized procedures. Indicators of the state of biodiversity, be they species, habitats or ecological services provided, have been different in different scientific studies, meaning that it is a challenge to track changes or make comparisons. However, some international initiatives – such as the global allianceu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://geobon.org/”u003eGEO BONu003c/au003eu0026nbsp;or theu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://europabon.org/”u003eEuropaBONu003c/au003eu0026nbsp;project have now attempted to quantify the losses and changes of biodiversity with precise and reliable scientific data at a local and global scale.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“These informative elements of environmental changesu0026nbsp; – which are, apparently, easy to measure, repeatable at different time and space scales and measurable with moderate resources – are necessary tools for defining policies on sustainable management and natural resource conservation,” noted Joan Real, member of theu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.ub.edu/portal/web/dp-beeca”u003eDepartment of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciencesu003c/au003eu0026nbsp;of the UB.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eScientists from the University of Barcelona, including Joan Real and Roger Puig-Gironès have now outlined a practical and comprehensive methodology for selecting biodiversity indicators for long-term monitoring. They explained that, in the Mediterranean region, the rich biodiversity and ecosystem complexity make it difficult to select suitable indicators of biodiversity and ecological changes.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn their recent publication in the journalu0026nbsp;u003cemu003ePublic Library of Scienceu003c/emu003eu0026nbsp;(u003ca href=”https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0265246″u003eu003cemu003ePLoS ONEu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e), the experts present a method for selecting the most representative bioindicators of an area, including the species, habitats and ecological processes. The new methodology optimizes the resources for monitoring biodiversity, includes multidisciplinary data and is applicable in most of Mediterranean ecosystems.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe main reference of the study is the Biodiversity Monitoring Centre of Mediterranean Mountains (u003ca href=”https://www.ub.edu/biologiaconservacio/en/working-lines/biodiversity/monitoring/pilot-centre/”u003eCMBMMu003c/au003e), a pioneering initiative in Spain in the monitoring and conservation of biodiversity, that was launched in 2016 by the UB and the Barcelona Provincial Council in the Sant Llorenç del Munt i l’Obac Natural Park.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“There are more than 3,500 species in more than ninety typologies of habitats in the park, and in the complex biotic network, we must add the abiotic aspects (climate, soil structure, relief, fires, etc.) and anthropic (infrastructures) elements, which harden the understanding of ecological relationships,” said Real, director of CMBMM. “We need to add this knowledge to find the state and trends of biodiversity, detect the emerging warning signs, and diagnose the origins of the conservation problems in order to reverse the negative trends, and plan a better biodiversity management and conservation.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe new methodology considers indicators at four ecological levels – species, habitats, ecological processes and factors of change. It also takes into account the biological interactions between the elements of the biodiversity and it introduces the trophic networks, from primary production through to predators.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“In the study, we defined a total of twenty-seven priority indicators, thirteen of them referring to the state of the species, two of them to the habitats, four to the ecological processes and the other eight to the effects of the factors of change in the ecosystem,” said Puig-Gironès, member of UB-IRBio and the University of Girona.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe Sant Llorenç del Munt Natural Park is the oldest natural park in Spain and it stands out due to its biological richness. The Park has many oak groves and pine forests which are well conserved, in addition to the matorrals, small patches of bush and pastures which result from the abandonment of agricultural activities. This is also the natural habitat of Mediterranean threatened species such as Bonelli’s Eagle (u003cemu003eAquila fasciatau003c/emu003e) and the Egyptian vulture (u003cemu003eNeophron percnopterusu003c/emu003e), which is why the Park is part of the Natura 2000 Network and is a special protection area for birds (ZEPA).u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eHuman pressure, erosion, pollution and forest exploitation are all factors that affect the conservation of the Park’s biodiversity. “This is why we need a monitoring and information system based on scientific and robust data, and we must prioritize the resources to prevent the loss of biodiversity,” said the authors.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe new standardized protocol of biodiversity monitoring, implemented by the CMBMM, will be applied in the future to the Natural Park Network of the Barcelona Provincial Council as a strategic tool for the monitoring of the biodiversity, decision-making, ecological knowledge and the sustainable exploitation of resources.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe authors demonstrate the potential of this new methodology by considering a specific case study and the biodiversity components and their ecological interactions present in this particular protected area. They showed that their methodology can help select appropriate local and long-term indicators, reduce the number of components required for thorough biodiversity monitoring, and underline the importance of ecological processes.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:bosman@truewan.co.za”u003eu003cemu003eAlison Bosmanu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”New monitoring method may help prevent biodiversity loss”,”post_excerpt”:”As a result, it has become increasingly necessary to monitor changes in biodiversity so that protection measures can be introduced before it is too late. “,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”new-monitoring-method-may-help-prevent-biodiversity-loss”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-04-29 09:36:40″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-04-29 15:36:40″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1908207″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”04-29-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/new-monitoring-method-may-help-prevent-biodiversity-loss/”,”author_name”:”Alison Bosman”,”author_url”:””,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/a33f7e6b2104c5708420301534070584?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/a33f7e6b2104c5708420301534070584?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/29093254/Biodiversity4-scaled.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1706,”file”:”2022/04/Biodiversity4-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Biodiversity4-300×200.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:200,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Biodiversity4-1024×683.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:683,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Biodiversity4-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Biodiversity4-768×512.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:512,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Biodiversity4-1536×1024.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1024,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Biodiversity4.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”Biological diversity is under threat all over the world. More…”},{“ID”:1908209,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2022-04-29 09:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-04-29 15:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eArbor Day is a secular day of observance in which individuals and organizations in various countries are encouraged to plant u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/hidden-value-of-trees-far-exceeds-their-commercial-value/”u003etreesu003c/au003e. The first documented arbor plantation festival was held in the Spanish village of Mondoñedo in 1594. It later on spread throughout the world and is currently celebrated in over 45 countries. Since the best time to plant trees relies upon climate and season – with spring generally considered the optimal season for such activities – its date varies around the world.u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn the United States, Arbor Day was first celebrated in Nebraska on April 10, 1874, at the initiative of Julius Sterling Morton, a journalist and tree-planting enthusiast who later on became the U.S. Agriculture Secretary under president Grover Cleveland. Morton had long championed the idea of a specific day dedicated to planting trees. In 1874 his dream finally came true, leading to the plantation of over one million trees in a single day. Gradually, this idea caught on in other states too and, by 1885, its observance had become a national event.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eNowadays, Arbor Day is a national holiday, and is generally celebrated on the last Friday of April, although the date varies in some states according to the best tree-planting times in each area. Since this year marks Arbor Day’s 150u003csupu003ethu003c/supu003e birthday, the u003ca href=”https://www.arborday.org/”u003eArbor Day Foundationu003c/au003e – a nonprofit conservation and educational organization founded in 1972 in Nebraska – has compiled a list with 150 ways to celebrate trees on this special day:u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:heading –u003enu003ch2 id=”h-diy”u003eu003cstrongu003eDIYu0026nbsp;u003c/strongu003eu003c/h2u003enu003c!– /wp:heading –u003ennu003c!– wp:list {“ordered”:true} –u003enu003colu003eu003cliu003eMake evergreen tree Rice Krispie treats.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eBake cookies with different tree designs on them.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eDecorate cupcakes with leaf-shaped icing.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMake your favorite drink but green (bubble tea, milkshakes, iced coffee).u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCreate tree-themed latte foam art.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMakeu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.treehugger.com/learn-how-to-make-maple-syrup-3016985″u003ehomemade syrupu003c/au003eu0026nbsp;from a tree.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCreateu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZrSkLauBnEu0026amp;t=62s”u003econfettiu003c/au003eu0026nbsp;out of fallen leaves.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMake your own potpourri out of natural materials.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCreate a tree patterned green tie-dyed shirt.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCraft jewelry out of leaves, twigs, or nuts.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMake clay impressions with different leaves.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eFind ways to repurpose fallen trees.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eBuild something out of recycled wood.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003c/olu003enu003c!– /wp:list –u003ennu003c!– wp:heading –u003enu003ch2 id=”h-arts-crafts”u003eu003cstrongu003eArts u0026amp; Craftsu003c/strongu003eu0026nbsp;u003c/h2u003enu003c!– /wp:heading –u003ennu003c!– wp:list {“ordered”:true,”start”:14} –u003enu003col start=”14″u003eu003cliu003eDo a paint by number for a treescape.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003ePaint or draw your favorite tree.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMake a fingerprint tree.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eDo an art project of planting fallen tree branches.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCreate some nature art by painting pinecones or painting leaves.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eSidewalk chalk – drawing a forest through your neighborhood/city/driveway.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eSponsor a craft show featuring exhibitors who engage in crafts with natural materials.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMake holiday tree ornaments.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eDo a photo-shoot in a forest or with your favorite tree.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCreate a tree pop-up card.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCraft an apple tree out of pipe cleaners and red cotton balls.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMake a bird feeder out of fallen pinecones.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCreate a scrapbook out of different tree leaves.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMake a ‘shades of nature’ collage with parts of trees.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCreate trees out ofu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.notimeforflashcards.com/2012/09/yarn-stamped-fall-tree.html”u003eyarn stampsu003c/au003e.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMakeu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://wilkerdos.com/2020/11/how-to-make-prints-from-a-tree-ring”u003etree ring stampsu003c/au003e.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eSpend an afternoon doingu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/blog/2019/11/tree-bark-crafts/#:~:text=Simply%20take%20some%20crayons%20and,print%20of%20the%20bark%20pattern.”u003ebark rubbingsu003c/au003eu0026nbsp;with your local trees. u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMake a forest diorama from only things you find outside.u003c/liu003eu003c/olu003enu003c!– /wp:list –u003ennu003c!– wp:heading –u003enu003ch2 id=”h-kid-themed-activities”u003eu003cstrongu003eKid-Themed Activitiesu0026nbsp;u003c/strongu003eu0026nbsp;u003c/h2u003enu003c!– /wp:heading –u003ennu003c!– wp:list {“ordered”:true,”start”:32} –u003enu003col start=”32″u003eu003cliu003eCreate an animal out of twigs and leaves.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMake a tree sculpture out of a paper bag.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eOrganize a nature art show for kids.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eEnjoy tree games and activities on ouru0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.arborday.org/kids/”u003eTree Education Hubu003c/au003e.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eVolunteer at a local school to teach a short tree lesson to students.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eIntroduce a young person to tree-related education atu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.arborday.org/kids/”u003eArborDay.org/kidsu003c/au003e.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eInspire a local school to apply foru0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.arborday.org/programs/tree-campus-k-12/”u003eTree Campus K-12 recognitionu003c/au003e.u003c/liu003eu003c/olu003enu003c!– /wp:list –u003ennu003c!– wp:heading –u003enu003ch2 id=”h-interact-with-a-tree”u003eu003cstrongu003eInteract With a Treeu003c/strongu003eu0026nbsp;u003c/h2u003enu003c!– /wp:heading –u003ennu003c!– wp:list {“ordered”:true,”start”:39} –u003enu003col start=”39″u003eu003cliu003ePlant a tree.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eHug a tree.u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eClimb a tree.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eAdopt a tree in need.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eSponsor a tree.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eParticipate in a ‘tree care’ day by mulching, pruning, and watering your trees.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eBury a treecapsule (time capsule full of trees seeds).u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMeditate under the shade of a tree.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003ePut up a hammock between trees.u003c/liu003eu003c/olu003enu003c!– /wp:list –u003ennu003c!– wp:heading –u003enu003ch2 id=”h-group-activities”u003eu003cstrongu003eGroup Activitiesu0026nbsp;u003c/strongu003eu0026nbsp;u003c/h2u003enu003c!– /wp:heading –u003ennu003c!– wp:list {“ordered”:true,”start”:48} –u003enu003col start=”48″u003eu003cliu003eVisiting your local park or forest.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eVolunteer to clean up a local forest or park.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eHost a tree distribution where you can give away trees to people in your community.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eOrganize a tree fair.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eHave a parade of trees.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eHost tree-themed block party.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eOrganize a search for the biggest tree in the community.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eu0026nbsp;Have a family picnic under a tree.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eOrganize a nature or tree scavenger hunt.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eHold an outdoor concert surrounded by trees.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eHold an Arbor Day ceremony and honor the good tree stewards in your community.u003c/liu003eu003c/olu003enu003c!– /wp:list –u003ennu003c!– wp:heading –u003enu003ch2 id=”h-competitions”u003eu003cstrongu003eCompetitionsu003c/strongu003eu0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/h2u003enu003c!– /wp:heading –u003ennu003c!– wp:list {“ordered”:true,”start”:59} –u003enu003col start=”59″u003eu003cliu003eHold a bird house building competition.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCreate a tree poster competition.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eDo the jellybean game but with park trees (guess how many trees are in a park).u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCreate a tree poetry contest.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eHold a treevia night where you play tree fact-based trivia.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003c/olu003enu003c!– /wp:list –u003ennu003c!– wp:heading –u003enu003ch2 id=”h-education”u003eu003cstrongu003eEducationu003c/strongu003eu003c/h2u003enu003c!– /wp:heading –u003ennu003c!– wp:list {“ordered”:true,”start”:64} –u003enu003col start=”64″u003eu003cliu003eExplore how water travelsu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://buggyandbuddy.com/science-kids-exploring-leaves/”u003ethrough treesu003c/au003e.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eStudy the veins of leaves under magnifying lenses.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eGather a bag of leaves and try to identify the species of trees.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eLearn why leavesu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.education.com/activity/article/Leaves_Change_fifth/”u003echange colorsu003c/au003e.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eLead or partake in a tree tour (Tree ID).u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eAttend or lead a tree planting seminar.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eLearn about trees at a local tree nursery.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eVolunteer with a local tree planting organization.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCreate a tree themed crossword puzzle.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eLearn more about the trees in your yard.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eHelp your city with their tree canopy assessment.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eVolunteer to take care of your current trees.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eLearn about the different types of forests: temperate, tropical, and boreal.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eExplore how trees keep our waterways clean.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eGet to know your community trees a bit better with theu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.facebook.com/watch/arborday/2981351291924030/”u003eTree ID with Peteu003c/au003eu0026nbsp;series.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eLearn about all the ways community trees benefit our health.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eOrganize a tree identification hike.u003c/liu003eu003c/olu003enu003c!– /wp:list –u003ennu003c!– wp:heading –u003enu003ch2 id=”h-social-media”u003eu003cstrongu003eSocial Mediau003c/strongu003eu0026nbsp;u003c/h2u003enu003c!– /wp:heading –u003ennu003c!– wp:list {“ordered”:true,”start”:81} –u003enu003col start=”81″u003eu003cliu003eArbor Day Makeup Challenge – create a makeup look inspired by nature or trees.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eOrganize a small social media hashtag campaign about trees with your local community.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCreate a TikTok dance about trees.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eUse the Arbor Day Facebook profile frame.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eFollow and engage with tree organizations on social media.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eStart a Facebook fundraiser for a local tree planting organization.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMake a Spotify playlist with songs about trees.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eLike and share posts about Arbor Day.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCreate a tree meme.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eTake your partner on a tree-themed date.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003ePost a picture of your favorite tree.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eTell tree-related jokes – (u003ca href=”https://arbordayblog.org/arbor-day/dans-top-11-tree-jokes/”u003ehere’s a list to get you startedu003c/au003e).u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eFollow a tree-related Instagram account.u003c/liu003eu003c/olu003enu003c!– /wp:list –u003ennu003c!– wp:heading –u003enu003ch2 id=”h-local-community”u003eu003cstrongu003eLocal Communityu003c/strongu003eu0026nbsp;u003c/h2u003enu003c!– /wp:heading –u003ennu003c!– wp:list {“ordered”:true,”start”:94} –u003enu003col start=”94″u003eu003cliu003eLead a guided tree walk.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eHide geocaches under and around trees in your community.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eDonate to your local tree planting organization.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eSend seedlings to school as a gift.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCreate a tree passport for all the trees in your community.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eVolunteer with a local tree-planting organization.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eVisit your local orchard.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eWrite a thank you card for your local arborist.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eThank your local urban forester.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eUrge your community leaders to take on a new urban forestry initiative.u003c/liu003eu003c/olu003enu003c!– /wp:list –u003ennu003c!– wp:heading –u003enu003ch2 id=”h-games”u003eu003cstrongu003eGamesu003c/strongu003eu0026nbsp;u003c/h2u003enu003c!– /wp:heading –u003ennu003c!– wp:list {“ordered”:true,”start”:104} –u003enu003col start=”104″u003eu003cliu003ePlay a tree related board game.u0026nbsp;u003ca href=”http://www.sahmreviews.com/2019/05/board-games-about-trees.html”u003eHere is a list of a fewu003c/au003e.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMake or do a tree themed bingo.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCreate and do a tree themed word search.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMake a sensory maze on a posterboard with leaves.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eComplete a tree puzzle.u003c/liu003eu003c/olu003enu003c!– /wp:list –u003ennu003c!– wp:heading –u003enu003ch2 id=”h-reading-and-writing”u003eu003cstrongu003eReading and Writingu0026nbsp;u003c/strongu003eu0026nbsp;u003c/h2u003enu003c!– /wp:heading –u003ennu003c!– wp:list {“ordered”:true,”start”:109} –u003enu003col start=”109″u003eu003cliu003eWrite a song about trees.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eRead a book about trees.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eWrite a short story about trees.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eRead a book under a tree.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eWrite a haiku about a tree.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eWrite a story, produce a play, or present a skit about trees.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCreate an alphabet book for trees.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eFind a favorite quote about trees.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMake a list of fantasy forests (Fangorn, Forbidden Forest, Mirkwood).u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eWrite a letter to a tree.u003c/liu003eu003c/olu003enu003c!– /wp:list –u003ennu003c!– wp:heading –u003enu003ch2 id=”h-miscellaneous”u003eu003cstrongu003eMiscellaneousu0026nbsp;u003c/strongu003eu0026nbsp;u003c/h2u003enu003c!– /wp:heading –u003ennu003c!– wp:list {“ordered”:true,”start”:119} –u003enu003col start=”119″u003eu003cliu003eMake a “u003ca href=”https://www.buzzfeed.com/sofiadeangelo/which-tree-are-you-eos2m56la2″u003ewhat kind of treeu003c/au003e” are you quiz.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eHave a tree planted in honor or celebration of someone.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eSport youru0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://shop.arborday.org/apparel”u003eArbor Day swagu003c/au003e.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eNominate somebody for theu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.arborday.org/programs/awards/nominate.cfm”u003eArbor Day awardsu003c/au003e.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003ePurchase from a brand that gives back to reforestation efforts.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eDress up like a tree.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCamp in a national forest or state park.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eGo hiking.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMake a tree-based sustainable swap.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003ePracticeu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/article/forest-bathing-nature-walk-health”u003eShinrin Yokuu003c/au003e.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003ePractice tree themed yoga poses.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eRecord your own version of John Denver’s “u003ca href=”https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9QW_64soK9Y”u003ePlant a Treeu003c/au003e” song.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eGive names to the trees on your property.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eTell someone you love them under a tree.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMake tree shadow puppets.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eGo bird watching in your favorite park or forest.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eBuild a charcuterie (treecuterie) board using tree fruits and tree nuts.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eGo on a sound walk to observe the sounds of a local forest or park.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eLook up your neighborhood’su0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://treeequityscore.org/”u003eTree Equity Scoreu003c/au003e.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eLook up your neighborhood’su0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.naturequant.com/naturescore/”u003eNature Scoreu003c/au003e.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eu003ca href=”https://www.arborday.org/programs/treecityusa/?Trackingid=404#recognizedSection”u003eFind out if you live in a Tree City USA communityu003c/au003e.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eFind out if your alma mater is au0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.arborday.org/programs/tree-campus-higher-education/#recognizedSection”u003eTree Campus Higher Educationu003c/au003eu0026nbsp;college or university.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eAdmire the trees in a national park on au0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://earth.google.com/web/@34.7325599,-94.20828246,312.18513029a,12000000d,35y,0h,0t,0r/data=Ci0SKxIgMzVhNjc1YmQ0NjVjMTFlOTg0Yjg1NTMyNWRjMDk2MzQiB3ZveV90b2M”u003eGoogle Earth virtual touru003c/au003e.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eVisit an enchanted forest on au0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://earth.google.com/web/@17.1582465,-6.78493275,313.00883809a,11430239.33852255d,30y,0h,0t,0r/data=Cj8SPRIgZjRiNzZkZGMwYjc4MTFlODgyNDFhZmQwMDBjYTc4ZmQiGWVmX2djc19lbmNoYW50ZWRmb3Jlc3RzXzA?hl=en”u003eGoogle Earth virtual touru003c/au003e.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eImmerse yourself in a forest somewhere in the world through audio with theu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://timberfestival.org.uk/soundsoftheforest-soundmap/”u003eSounds of the Forestu003c/au003eu0026nbsp;project.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eListen to a podcast about nature.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eCatch a Sudowoodo or other tree-themed Pokémon in Pokémon Go.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eMeasure how tall you are in leaves.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eGift someone a tree.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eFill out a “3 Ways I Can Help Trees” list.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eFill out au0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://www.target.com/p/gratitude-artificial-tree/-/A-80634377?ref=tgt_adv_XS000000u0026amp;AFID=google_pla_dfu0026amp;fndsrc=tgtaou0026amp;DFA=71700000012806747u0026amp;CPNG=PLA_Seasonal%2BShopping_Local%7CSeasonal_Ecomm_Homeu0026amp;adgroup=SC_Seasonal_Cards/Partyu0026amp;LID=700000001170770pgsu0026amp;LNM=PRODUCT_GROUPu0026amp;network=gu0026amp;device=cu0026amp;location=9024742u0026amp;targetid=pla-1430701857338u0026amp;ds_rl=1246978u0026amp;ds_rl=1247068u0026amp;gclid=Cj0KCQjwz7uRBhDRARIsAFqjulmaG8YXHLzYzT5Py1YyrG1rAVUlAdMoPK_LEtzN29a2IVy8z7enXcoaAljYEALw_wcBu0026amp;gclsrc=aw.ds”u003egratitude treeu003c/au003e.u003c/liu003eu003cliu003eVisit an arboretum.u0026nbsp;u003c/liu003eu003c/olu003enu003c!– /wp:list –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:andrei.ionescu5891@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eAndrei Ionescuu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Arbor Day celebrates its 150th birthday in the United States”,”post_excerpt”:”Arbor Day is a secular day of observance in which individuals and organizations in various countries are encouraged to plant trees”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”arbor-day-celebrates-its-150th-birthday-in-the-united-states”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-04-29 09:44:21″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-04-29 15:44:21″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1908209″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”04-29-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/arbor-day-celebrates-its-150th-birthday-in-the-united-states/”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:”http://earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/29094351/Arbor-Day-270×180.png”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:1545,”height”:957,”file”:”2022/04/Arbor-Day.png”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-300×186.png”,”width”:300,”height”:186,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”large”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-1024×634.png”,”width”:1024,”height”:634,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-150×150.png”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-768×476.png”,”width”:768,”height”:476,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-1536×951.png”,”width”:1536,”height”:951,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-1400×850.png”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-960×640.png”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-640×480.png”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-454×282.png”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-450×300.png”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-350×210.png”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-425×375.png”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-125×88.png”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-270×180.png”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-32×32.png”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-360×240.png”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-730×410.png”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-230×280.png”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/png”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Arbor-Day-230×260.png”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/png”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”0″,”keywords”:[]}},”trimmed_content”:”Arbor Day is a secular day of observance in which…”},{“ID”:1908205,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2022-04-29 09:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-04-29 15:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eA team of researchers led by the u003ca href=”https://www.mit.edu/”u003eMassachusetts Institute of Technologyu003c/au003e (MIT) has recently developed a portable desalination unit, which weighs less than 10 kilograms and can remove salts and particles in order to generate clean water. This new technology is packaged into a user-friendly device that runs with the push of one button, and can generate drinking water at a rate of 0.3 liters per hour, requiring only 20 watts of power per liter. u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eUnlike other portable desalination units which require water to pass through several filters, this groundbreaking device utilizes electrical power to remove unwanted salts and other particles.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“This is really the culmination of a 10-year journey that I and my group have been on. We worked for years on the physics behind individual desalination processes, but pushing all those advances into a box, building a system, and demonstrating it in the ocean, that was a really meaningful and rewarding experience for me,” said study senior author Jongyoon Han, a professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eWhile commercially available portable desalination units usually require high-pressure pumps to push water through filters, this newly developed device relies on a technique calledu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://news.mit.edu/2010/desalination-0323″u003eion concentration polarizationu003c/au003eu0026nbsp;(ICP) that was pioneered by Professor Han’s team over 10 years ago. Instead of filtering the water, the ICP process applies an electric field to membranes placed below and above a channel of water, repelling positively or negatively charged particles, such as salt molecules, viruses, or bacteria, as they flow by. These particles are then funneled into another stream of water which is eventually discharged.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAlthough the ICP process does not remove all the salts floating in the middle of the channel, incorporating a second process called electrodialysis can finally remove all the remaining salt ions. By using machine learning to find the ideal combination of ICP and electrodialysis modules, the scientists found that a two-stage ICP process with water flowing through six modules in the first stage and three additional ones in the second stage, followed by a single electrodialysis process is optimal for cleaning the water at a level that exceeds World Health Organization’s u003ca href=”https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/254637/9789241549950-eng.pdf”u003equality guidelinesu003c/au003e.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThis amazing device – which the researchers already field-tested at Boston’s Carson Beach – could be deployed in remote and resource-limited areas, such as small islands or seafaring cargo ships in order to clean seawater of salts, impurities, or pathogens. Moreover, it could also help refugees fleeing natural disasters or soldiers carrying long-term military operations have constant access to clean water.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eA detailed description of the device is published in the journal u003ca href=”https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.1c08466?ref=pdf”u003eu003cemu003eEnvironmental Science u0026amp; Technologyu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:andrei.ionescu5891@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eAndrei Ionescuu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”New device makes desalination possible with the push of a button”,”post_excerpt”:”A team of researchers led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has recently developed a portable desalination unit, which weighs less than 10 kilograms and can remove salts and particles in order to generate clean water”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”groundbreaking-device-can-clean-water-with-the-push-of-a-button”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-04-29 16:16:19″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-04-29 22:16:19″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1908205″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”04-29-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/groundbreaking-device-can-clean-water-with-the-push-of-a-button/”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:”http://earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/29091312/Clean-water-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:2249,”file”:”2022/04/Clean-water-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Clean-water-300×264.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:264,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Clean-water-1024×900.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:900,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Clean-water-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Clean-water-768×675.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:675,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Clean-water-1536×1349.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:1349,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Clean-water-2048×1799.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1799,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Clean-water-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Clean-water-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Clean-water-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Clean-water-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Clean-water-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Clean-water-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Clean-water-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Clean-water-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Clean-water-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Clean-water-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Clean-water-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Clean-water-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Clean-water-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Clean-water-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Clean-water.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”A team of researchers led by the Massachusetts Institute of…”},{“ID”:1908203,”post_author”:”59″,”post_date”:”2022-04-29 08:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-04-29 14:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn a recent letter to the journal u003ca href=”https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abq0082″u003eu003cemu003eScienceu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e, an international team of scientists has argued that, in order to end the pollution of the air, soils, rivers, and oceans with u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/plastic-pollution-is-a-planetary-emergency/”u003eplasticu003c/au003e debris and microplastics, production of new plastics needs to be urgently regulated, capped, and, in the long-term, phased out. While measures to address the consumption and demand side of the problem (such as additional taxes) are essential to curb plastic pollution, a comprehensive approach that includes the supply side is necessary to fully tackle this imminent global threat.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Even if we recycled better and tried to manage the waste as much as we can, we would still release more than 17 million tons of plastic per year into nature,” said the initiator of the letter Melanie Bergmann, a biologist at the u003ca href=”https://www.awi.de/”u003eAlfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Researchu003c/au003e (AWI). “If production just keeps growing and growing, we will be faced with a truly Sisyphean task.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eA previous study published in the journal u003ca href=”https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.aba9475″u003eu003cemu003eScienceu003c/emu003eu003c/au003e in 2020 has found that plastic pollution could only be cut by 79 percent over the next two decades if all solutions available today are implemented, including replacing plastics with more sustainable alternatives, and improved recycling and waste management.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“The exponentially growing production is really the root cause of the problem, and the amounts of plastics we have produced thus far have already exceeded planetary boundaries,” explained letter co-author Bethanie Carney Almroth, an expert in Ecotoxicology at the u003ca href=”https://www.gu.se/en”u003eUniversity of Gothenburgu003c/au003e. “If we don’t tackle that, all other measures will fail to achieve the goal of substantially reducing the release of plastic into the environment.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eAccording to the scientists, phasing out the production of new plastics from fresh feedstocks should be part of a larger, systemic solution to end plastic pollution. Gradually cutting the production of new plastics will have many environmental, societal, and economic benefits.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“We gain a lot of benefits from plastics but reducing production will increase the value of plastics, boost other measures to curb plastic pollution, help tackle climate change and promote our transition to a circular and sustainable economy,” concluded Martin Wagner, an ecotoxicologist at the u003ca href=”https://www.ntnu.edu/”u003eNorwegian University of Science and Technologyu003c/au003e.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:andrei.ionescu5891@gmail.com”u003eu003cemu003eAndrei Ionescuu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Plastic production must be phased out to stop pollution”,”post_excerpt”:”production of new plastics needs to be urgently regulated, capped, and, in the long-term, phased out.”,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”plastic-production-must-be-phased-out-to-stop-pollution”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-04-29 08:58:23″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-04-29 14:58:23″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1908203″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”04-29-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/plastic-production-must-be-phased-out-to-stop-pollution/”,”author_name”:”Andrei Ionescu”,”author_url”:”http://earth.com”,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/bd0b83647c92a32fc0e7bfc6ef606a6f?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/29085800/Production-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2560,”height”:1161,”file”:”2022/04/Production-scaled.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Production-300×136.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:136,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Production-1024×464.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:464,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Production-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Production-768×348.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:348,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Production-1536×696.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:696,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Production-2048×928.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:928,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Production-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Production-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Production-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Production-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Production-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Production-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Production-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Production-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Production-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Production-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Production-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Production-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Production-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Production-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]},”original_image”:”Production.jpg”},”trimmed_content”:”In a recent letter to the journal Science, an international…”},{“ID”:1908201,”post_author”:”57″,”post_date”:”2022-04-29 08:00:00″,”post_date_gmt”:”2022-04-29 14:00:00″,”post_content”:”u003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eTropical and subtropical u003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/news/dog-feces-can-harm-the-environment-and-disrupt-ecosystems/”u003eecosystemsu003c/au003e boast a greater diversity of plant and animal species, a phenomenon that has been well studied by biologists over many decades. By contrast, temperate ecosystems and those at higher latitudes exhibit lower biodiversity. However, differences in species richness between the world’s three major habitat types – marine, terrestrial and freshwater – have not received anywhere near as much scientific interest.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eA new study led by ecologists from the u003ca href=”https://www.arizona.edu/”u003eUniversity of Arizonau003c/au003e has now attempted to quantify biodiversity in ocean, freshwater and terrestrial habitats on a global scale. The scientists also explore possible reasons to explain differences in the patterns of biodiversity in these three habitat types.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study was led byu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://ischool.arizona.edu/people/cristian-roman-palacios”u003eCristian Román-Palaciosu003c/au003e, an assistant professor in the University of Arizonau0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://ischool.arizona.edu/”u003eSchool of Informationu003c/au003eu0026nbsp;in the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences, andu0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://eeb.arizona.edu/person/john-wiens”u003eJohn J. Wiensu003c/au003e, a professor in the University of Arizonau0026nbsp;u003ca href=”https://eeb.arizona.edu/”u003eDepartment of Ecology and Evolutionary Biologyu003c/au003eu0026nbsp;in the College of Science.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“As far as we know, our paper is the first to provide a global analysis of biodiversity by habitat and provide possible explanations as to what might drive the observed patterns,” said Professor Wiens.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers considered more than 99 percent of known animal species in their analysis, along with all of the known plant species. They estimate that 77 percent of known animal species inhabit terrestrial habitats, 12 percent live in ocean habitats and 11 percent are found in freshwater. Among plants, only two percent of species are found in the ocean and a mere five percent live in freshwater.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eDespite the fact that the vast majority of animals and plants inhabit terrestrial ecosystems, land only covers about 28 percent of the Earth’s surface. Oceans cover 70 percent of the Earth and have fewer species in general. This leaves only a minute fraction of the surface area for freshwater habitats. Interestingly, the study revealed that the two percent of Earth’s surface covered by freshwater habitats actually supports the highest species richness per unit area relative to the other two habitat types.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe authors also assessed phylogenetic diversity in the three different habitats. This provides a measure of how closely or distantly related the species are to each other in evolutionary terms. When they considered phylogenetic diversity per unit area of each habitat type, they again found freshwater diversity to be the highest; it was at least twice as high asu003cstrongu003eu0026nbsp;u003c/strongu003ethe phylogenetic diversity found in land and ocean habitats, for both animals and plants.u0026nbsp;This finding highlights the fact that freshwater habitats are pockets of exceptional diversity that need to be conserved in future.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“The large-scale patterns of freshwater community composition resemble the process of creating mosaic art – where many groups in freshwater are like ‘pieces’ sourced from either land or marine ecosystems,” said Professor Wiens. “Therefore, creating additional protections to freshwater habitats could help to efficiently conserve, at once, very divergent groups of animals and plants.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eBy contrast, animal and plant species in terrestrial habitats tend to represent only a few phyla, or taxonomic groups of organisms. This implies that by protecting freshwater habitats, more species and more evolutionary history would be preserved than if the same area of terrestrial or marine habitat were to be protected.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Insights into phylogenetic diversity afford us a great opportunity to preserve significant pieces of evolutionary history,” said Wiens, adding that the distribution of phyla among habitats helps explain these patterns of phylogenetic diversity.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe researchers found that the relative biodiversity of habitats is related to variation in diversification rates among habitats. This is a measure of how many species originate and accumulate in a habitat type in a given time. Habitats where species diversify more rapidly have greater biodiversity. Diversification rates can be influenced by several different factors, including the extent to which populations are isolated. In marine habitats there are fewer barriers separating populations and therefore the rate of speciation may be slower.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Species may proliferate more rapidly on land than they do in the ocean or in freshwater because there are many more barriers to dispersal on land compared to the ocean, where organisms can move more freely,” said Professor Wiens.u0026nbsp;“These barriers seem to help drive the origin of new species in all habitats in both plants and animals.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eBased on ancestral reconstructions of the three habitat types, the researchers found that most marine species are descended from marine ancestors and most terrestrial species from freshwater ancestors. Yet, most current animal biodiversity in freshwater habitats is derived from terrestrial ancestors.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“We were able to show that generally speaking, the oceans were colonized first, then species moved into freshwater habitats and lastly, onto land,” said Wiens. “And that holds true for plants and animals. Therefore, the greater biodiversity on land cannot be explained by an earlier colonization of terrestrial habitats.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eIn the past, scientists have traditionally explained global biodiversity patterns in terms of greater solar energy input leading to increased biological productivity, particularly in terms of plants. The increased availability of plant food was then considered to drive animal species diversification. But in the current study, the growth of plants was found to have a much smaller effect on diversity patterns than previously thought.u0026nbsp;u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“Overall productivity is similar between the ocean and land, which tells us that at the global scale, productivity is not the most important determinant of biodiversity,” explained Professor Wiens. He added that the area covered by each habitat type does not appear to be a decisive factor, either, since the oceans have the greatest area but also have very limited species numbers.u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e“We conclude that the rate of species proliferation might be the most important aspect in driving species richness across the planet.”u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eOverall, the results of this study reveal the origins of fundamental but neglected biodiversity patterns in land, ocean and freshwater habitats, and highlight the importance of conserving freshwater habitats in future.u0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eThe study is published in the journal u003ca href=”https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/14610248″u003eu003cemu003eEcology Lettersu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e.u003c/emu003eu0026nbsp;u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003e—u003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003ennu003c!– wp:paragraph –u003enu003cpu003eu003cemu003eBy u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”mailto:bosman@truewan.co.za”u003eu003cemu003eAlison Bosmanu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e, u003c/emu003eu003ca href=”https://www.earth.com/staff/”u003eu003cemu003eEarth.comu003c/emu003eu003c/au003eu003cemu003e Staff Writeru003c/emu003eu003c/pu003enu003c!– /wp:paragraph –u003e”,”post_title”:”Freshwater habitats help to protect biodiversity”,”post_excerpt”:”However, differences in species richness between the world’s three major habitat types – marine, terrestrial and freshwater – have not received anywhere near as much scientific interest. “,”post_status”:”publish”,”comment_status”:”closed”,”ping_status”:”closed”,”post_password”:””,”post_name”:”freshwater-habitats-help-to-protect-biodiversity”,”to_ping”:””,”pinged”:””,”post_modified”:”2022-04-29 08:38:13″,”post_modified_gmt”:”2022-04-29 14:38:13″,”post_content_filtered”:””,”post_parent”:0,”guid”:”https://www.earth.com/?post_type=newsu0026#038;p=1908201″,”menu_order”:0,”post_type”:”news”,”post_mime_type”:””,”comment_count”:”0″,”filter”:”raw”,”formatted_date”:”04-29-2022″,”permalink”:”https://www.earth.com/news/freshwater-habitats-help-to-protect-biodiversity/”,”author_name”:”Alison Bosman”,”author_url”:””,”author_avatar”:”u003cimg alt=”” src=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/a33f7e6b2104c5708420301534070584?s=32u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g” srcset=”https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/a33f7e6b2104c5708420301534070584?s=64u0026#038;d=mmu0026#038;r=g 2x” class=”avatar avatar-32 photo img-fluid rounded-circle w-auto” height=”32″ width=”32″ loading=’lazy’/u003e”,”thumb”:”https://cff2.earth.com/uploads/2022/04/29083735/Freshwater-270×180.jpg”,”terms”:false,”image”:{“width”:2500,”height”:1559,”file”:”2022/04/Freshwater.jpg”,”sizes”:{“medium”:{“file”:”Freshwater-300×187.jpg”,”width”:300,”height”:187,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”large”:{“file”:”Freshwater-1024×639.jpg”,”width”:1024,”height”:639,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”thumbnail”:{“file”:”Freshwater-150×150.jpg”,”width”:150,”height”:150,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”medium_large”:{“file”:”Freshwater-768×479.jpg”,”width”:768,”height”:479,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”1536×1536″:{“file”:”Freshwater-1536×958.jpg”,”width”:1536,”height”:958,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”2048×2048″:{“file”:”Freshwater-2048×1277.jpg”,”width”:2048,”height”:1277,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”big-img”:{“file”:”Freshwater-1400×850.jpg”,”width”:1400,”height”:850,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article”:{“file”:”Freshwater-960×640.jpg”,”width”:960,”height”:640,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-smaller”:{“file”:”Freshwater-640×480.jpg”,”width”:640,”height”:480,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”main-article-side”:{“file”:”Freshwater-454×282.jpg”,”width”:454,”height”:282,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”media-article”:{“file”:”Freshwater-450×300.jpg”,”width”:450,”height”:300,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”16-9-article”:{“file”:”Freshwater-350×210.jpg”,”width”:350,”height”:210,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”4-3-article”:{“file”:”Freshwater-425×375.jpg”,”width”:425,”height”:375,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”small-article”:{“file”:”Freshwater-125×88.jpg”,”width”:125,”height”:88,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”side-article”:{“file”:”Freshwater-270×180.jpg”,”width”:270,”height”:180,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”author-avatar”:{“file”:”Freshwater-32×32.jpg”,”width”:32,”height”:32,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”secondary-article”:{“file”:”Freshwater-360×240.jpg”,”width”:360,”height”:240,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”featured-article”:{“file”:”Freshwater-730×410.jpg”,”width”:730,”height”:410,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”product-single-image”:{“file”:”Freshwater-230×280.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:280,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”},”plant-small-image”:{“file”:”Freshwater-230×260.jpg”,”width”:230,”height”:260,”mime-type”:”image/jpeg”}},”image_meta”:{“aperture”:”0″,”credit”:””,”camera”:””,”caption”:””,”created_timestamp”:”0″,”copyright”:””,”focal_length”:”0″,”iso”:”0″,”shutter_speed”:”0″,”title”:””,”orientation”:”1″,”keywords”:[]}},”trimmed_content”:”Tropical and subtropical ecosystems boast a greater diversity of plant…”}]}}},”page”:”/news/[slug]”,”query”:{“slug”:”nearly-60-percent-of-people-in-the-us-have-had-covid-19″},”buildId”:”wPa_qD-S5RZ4zwuo5aPM2″,”isFallback”:false,”gssp”:true,”appGip”:true,”scriptLoader”:[]}

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