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A new way to speed up wound healing. How does pasteurization affect enzymes in breast milk. Read about research papers on these topics that were recently published in the Journal of Lipid Research.

A new way to speed up wound healing

Wound healing is a dynamic process. First, the body stimulates clotting factors to reduce blood loss. Then inflammation begins to protect the affected tissue from pathogens. After the foreign factors are removed, tissue cells proliferate and new epithelial layers are formed. Many different molecules signal each other at each step of healing, which requires a balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes. When signaling cascades and the inflammatory balance are impaired, the wound cannot heal.

Yaron Fox and Samara Brown / The Rockefeller University

This confocal micrograph from a mouse shows a wound to the tail during the healing process.

Eicosanoids refer to lipid molecules that play a role in and impair the mammalian wound response; They include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. An imbalance between the anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, and the pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, such as epoxy eicosatrionic acids, leads to wound healing problems. Thus, researchers are studying different ways to regulate eicosanoid expression to develop a more efficient treatment.

Eicosanoids are synthesized by the activity of phospholipase A2, or PLA2, which is activated by ceramide-1-phosphate, or C1P – a key regulator of cell growth and survival that plays an important role in cell division and DNA synthesis. C1P is regulated by ceramide kinase enzymes, or CERK, and previous studies have shown that CERK downregulation prevents PLA2 activation, leading to the depletion of eicosanoids in response to inflammation.

Kenneth D. Mouse of the University of South Florida, Tampa, and a team of researchers from the University of Virginia Medical School and elsewhere in the US targeted CERK by producing small-molecule inhibitors and by genetically manipulating its effect on wound healing. they Article – Commodity About this work was recently published in Lipid Research Journal.

The group developed a small molecular inhibitor against CERK, and they genetically modified mice to excise CERK synthesis. They show that CERK inhibition or ablation accelerates the transition from inflammation to wound spread. These results indicate that CERK inhibition enhances wound healing and tissue maturation, and they provide preclinical data to explore future human clinical applications.

How does pasteurization affect the enzymes in breast milk?

The unique nutritional formula of human milk protects infants from disease by stimulating immune function, building up the gut microbiome, and acting against microbes to reduce infection. However, breast milk from a biological parent is not always available. In such cases, experts advise that breast milk is the best option for the first six months. Before feeding the infant, the donor’s milk must be pasteurized to kill bacteria and viruses. Pasteurization has little effect on the nutritional composition of milk; However, exposure to high heat for 30 to 45 minutes may damage some enzymes that are important for digesting fats.

Triacylglycerols make up 98% of the fat content and provide about 55% of the total energy intake of a breastfed infant. The digestion of triglycerides and the subsequent absorption of free fatty acids are essential for the development of the brain and nervous system. However, if pasteurization damages the enzymes that play a role in fat digestion, donor milk is not the best option. Syazah Abu Bakr of the Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and a group of researchers in Australia examined differences in fat digestion, comparing unpasteurized and pasteurized breast milk, in recent study Posted in Lipid Research Journal.

Bile salt-stimulated lipase, or BSSL, is an enzyme important for fat digestion. Researchers note that unpasteurized milk contains more free fatty acids than pasteurized milk, which means that pasteurization of milk impairs digestion. Laboratory experiments have shown that adding bile salts to milk helps achieve near-complete digestion, indicating the removal of BSSL in pasteurization. The researchers concluded that for healthy infant development, the activities of enzymes such as BSSL must be protected and maintained during pasteurization.