One size does not fit all in the app or in the evaluation

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A review paper prepared by a research team at Tianjin University of Technology used several advanced electron microscopy techniques and associated characterization techniques to elucidate two structure-dependent mechanisms of lithium-ion batteries. attributed to him: Nano research energyTsinghua University Press

Seeing is believing—or rather, seeing can aid understanding, especially when it comes to the mechanisms underlying lithium-ion batteries. Despite their near pervasive use in cell phones, computers, etc., the complex electrochemical environments of lithium-ion batteries remain a mystery.

To better understand and improve Battery performanceThe researchers examined and used the current scientific literature Electron microscope To take a closer look at freight transport and lithium ion Migration mechanisms that produce energy. This study was published in Nano research energy.

“Commercial lithium-ion batteries are widely used energy storage devicesIncluding electric carYi Ding, a professor at Tianjin University of Technology, said: “Power, energy, charge-discharge rate, cost, life cycle, safety and environmental impact These need to be considered while using lithium-ion batteries for a suitable application, but each particular application faces a variety of different challenges.”

The amount of energy stored is important for portable electronics, while cost and safety are more important for electric vehicles, for example. Cost and safety are also important to the needs of the power grid, but energy density It becomes less than electric cars. The trade-off between these changes based on need, but the ability to tune performance is limited by an incomplete understanding of the materials used in batteries.

“Active electrode materials are the main part responsible for cell chemistry and performance, and ultimately influence the commercialization of the manufactured battery,” Ding said.

“The performance, such as the life cycle and energy density, of current commercial electrode material systems still needs to be improved, so it is important to understand the physical properties and chemical propertiessuch as the structural/kinetic evolution during lithium de-incorporation and the effect of the electrode-electrolyte interface on the performance of lithium-ion batteries”.

The researchers reviewed recent advances in electron microscopy to see how traditional characterization techniques measure when it comes to understanding the structural and activity relationships of commercial lithium-ion batteries.

“By comparing with the characterization content obtained through conventional characterization techniques, such as X-ray diffraction and X-ray spectroscopy, we demonstrate the advantages and limitations of common electron microscopes and advanced electron microscopy techniques that we have recently developed, such as in situ electron microscopy technology, in This is critical research,” said Ding.

The researchers studied how advanced electron microscopy and associated characterization techniques can provide various insights into how, for example, lithium ions in a battery migrate to produce charge or how charge transfer can lead to energy use.

They focused in particular on the mechanism of transition metal dissolution and charge transfer in the process of charging and discharging the positive electrodes of a lithium-ion battery; Structure and evolution of solid-state cathode and interphase interfaces during long-term cycling; And the effect of electrode structure and interface on lithium ion migration.

The conclusion, according to Ding, is that next-generation lithium-ion battery technologies with better cost and performance benefits are needed.

“We suggest that electron microscopy can be combined with other techniques to obtain more comprehensive information,” Ding said, noting that electron microscopy has three common limitations in battery assessment.

These include inconsistent electrochemical environments between electron microscopy fields and actual batteries; Unstable time windows that can skew data about the evolution of the sample; Some batteries cannot be quantified at the nanoscale. “Even with limitations, these discussions allow researchers to gain a deeper understanding of how business is done Lithium ion batteries They work at the microscopic level and provide guidance for design strategies for practical, high-performance batteries.”

Reactive electrolyte additives improve the performance of lithium-metal battery

more information:
Kexin Zhang et al, Case and Principal Materials Perspectives of the PEM Electrolyzer, Nano research energy (2022). doi: 10.26599/NRE.2022.9120032

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