Sind manche Menschen resistent gegen COVID-19? Genetiker sind auf der Jagd.

Nachdem sie COVID-19 während der Pandemie mehrmals aus dem Weg gegangen war, fragte sich Flugbegleiterin Angelika Kaoukaki, ob sie eine medizinische Anomalie sei. Aber sie gehört wahrscheinlich zu einer kleinen Gruppe von Menschen, die eine genetische Resistenz gegen das Virus haben könnten. Wissenschaftler versuchen nun herauszufinden, wie eine solche Resistenz gegen COVID-19 funktionieren könnte – und ob diese Eigenschaft zur Entwicklung neuer Medikamente gegen die Krankheit genutzt werden könnte.

Kaoukaki hatte bereits mit anderen Kabinenbesatzungsmitgliedern zusammengearbeitet, die positiv waren, ohne selbst krank zu werden. Dann, im Juli 2021, bekam Kaoukakis Partner einen schweren Fall von COVID-19 mit hoher Temperatur und unerträglichen Schmerzen, der fast 10 Tage anhielt. Kaoukaki zeigte keine Symptome, obwohl sich das Paar zwei Wochen lang in seinem Arbeitszimmer in Athen, Griechenland, isolierte.

Sie war bei mehreren PCR- und Antigen-Schnelltests weiterhin negativ, und ein Test, den sie 23 Tage nach der bestätigten Infektion ihres Partners durchführte, ergab keine Antikörper in ihrem Blut.

„Ich habe es jeden Tag gehört [from doctors] dass du vielleicht COVID hast“, sagt sie, „aber immer wieder war ich negativ.“

Obwohl sie beide geimpft waren, Ihr Partner hat COVID-19 während der Omicron-Welle im Januar wiedererlangt. Kaoukaki wurde fünf Tage lang bei ihm isoliert und zeigte erneut keine Symptome und war beim Virustest weiterhin negativ. Dann begann sie, nach einer Erklärung zu suchen.

Ein Online-Artikel dazu geführt Evangelos Andreakos, Immunologe an der Stiftung für biomedizinische Forschung der Athener Akademie. Er ist Teil eines internationalen Konsortiums namens Die humangenetische Anstrengung von COVID das nach genetischen Variationen suchte, die aufzeigen könnten, warum manche Menschen nie COVID-19 bekommen.

Obwohl Andreakos und seine Kollegen nicht damit gerechnet hatten, viele solcher Personen für ihre Forschung zu finden, wurden sie mit E-Mails von mindestens 5.000 Freiwilligen aus der ganzen Welt mit ähnlichen Geschichten wie Kaoukaki überschwemmt. Anhand von Speichelproben von 20 Prozent der Personen, die die Kriterien ihrer Studie erfüllten, werden Andreakos und sein Team Regionen von Genen scannen, die Proteine ​​​​in ihrer DNA kodieren, um alle Mutationen zu erkennen, die in den genetischen Sequenzen von Patienten mit schwerer oder mittelschwerer Erkrankung fehlen COVID-Fälle -19. Wir hoffen, dass einige dieser Menschen das Geheimnis des Widerstands gegen COVID-19 verbergen.

„Wir gehen davon aus, dass es sich um eine seltene Population handelt“, sagte Andreakos. “Aber es gibt Präzedenzfälle.”

Resistenz gegen andere Virusinfektionen

Lange Zeit wurde angenommen, dass der Ausgang einer Infektion von den genetischen Eigenschaften des Erregers abhängt.

„Früher hat man eher über einen Erreger nach Schweregrad nachgedacht – es ist ein schwerer oder ein milder Erreger“, sagt ein Molekularvirologe. Johann Nordgren an der schwedischen Universität Linköping. Relativ wenig Aufmerksamkeit wurde dem Wirt geschenkt und ob seine Gene seine Fähigkeit zur Bekämpfung von Infektionen beeinflussen, sagt er.

In den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten haben Wissenschaftler jedoch sogenannte durchgeführt Assoziationsstudien auf Genomebene um bestimmte Gene oder DNA-Regionen zu identifizieren, die mit bestimmten Krankheiten in Verbindung gebracht werden können. Dazu vergleichen sie die genetischen Sequenzen von Infizierten mit Gesunden und suchen nach Korrelationen zwischen Mutationen und Resistenzen.

1996 wurde diese Methode durch einen Molekularbiologen ermöglicht Stephen O’Brien und seine Kollegen ja entdeckte eine seltene genetische Mutation das vor dem menschlichen Immunschwächevirus schützt, das AIDS verursacht.

Die meisten Menschen haben einen Proteinrezeptor, der hauptsächlich auf der Oberfläche bestimmter Immunzellen vorhanden ist und als Chemokinrezeptor 5 oder CCR5 bezeichnet wird. Dieser Rezeptor ermöglicht HIV zu binden und in die Zelle einzudringen. Aber O’Briens Team fand heraus, dass manche Menschen eine Mutation haben, die einen defekten Rezeptor produziert.

Um resistent zu sein, benötigt ein Individuum zwei Kopien dieser sogenannten Delta-32-Mutation – eine von jedem Elternteil. Eine Kopie kann dem Virus immer noch ermöglichen, Zellen zu infizieren, obwohl es den Weg des Patienten zu AIDS verlangsamt.

„Delta 32 war ein verdammt gutes Beispiel, das die Menschen davon überzeugte, dass die Genetik wichtig ist und dass es möglich ist, genetische Resistenzen zu haben“, sagt O’Brien.

Wissenschaftler haben auch eine Mutation in einem anderen Gen gefunden, das Resistenz verleiht bestimmte Norovirus-Stämme die weltweit eine der Hauptursachen für akute Gastroenteritis sind. Diese Mutation verhindert, dass Noroviren in die Zellen eindringen, die den menschlichen Verdauungstrakt auskleiden.

„Mit anderen Worten, entweder einen Port schaffen, über den das Virus in die Zelle eindringt, oder nicht“, sagt er Lisa Lindesmith, ein Norovirus-Forscher an der University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill. “Wenn Sie dies nicht tun, spielt es keine Rolle, wie viele Viren wir Ihnen geben können, Sie werden nicht infiziert.”

Obwohl die genetische Resistenz gegen Virusinfektionen nicht weit verbreitet ist, hat die Tatsache, dass sie auftritt, das Interesse an ähnlichen Mutationen bei Menschen geweckt, die COVID ausgesetzt sind.

Genetischer Hintergrund der Resistenz gegen COVID-19

Covid Human Genetic Effort begann im vergangenen Jahr mit der Rekrutierung von Freiwilligen und konzentrierte sich auf Gesundheitspersonal, das dem Virus ausgesetzt war, sich aber nicht infizierte, und gesunde Erwachsene, die im Haushalt mit einem Ehepartner oder Partner leben, der krank wurde und an einer mittelschweren oder schweren Krankheit litt. Symptome von COVID-19, wie Kaoukaki.

Wissenschaftler haben die Hypothese aufgestellt, dass diese Personen, wenn sie wiederholt exponiert sind und dennoch eine Infektion vermeiden, mit größerer Wahrscheinlichkeit eine Mutation tragen, die eine Resistenz gegen das Virus verleiht.

Ein vielversprechendes Ziel ist ein Gen, das für den menschlichen ACE2-Rezeptor kodiert, und solche, die seine Expression auf der Zelloberfläche regulieren. Das SARS-CoV-2-Virus, das COVID-19 verursacht, muss an ACE2 binden, um in Zellen einzudringen und sie zu infizieren. Eine Mutation, die seine Struktur und Expression verändert, kann die Virusbindung blockieren und eine Infektion verhindern.

Bisher scheint ACE2 unsere beste Wahl zu sein, sagt er Jean Laurent Casanova, ein Genetiker von der Rockefeller University, der Teil des COVID Human Genetic Effort-Projekts ist. Genetische Variationen, die es ACE2 ermöglichen, normal zu funktionieren, aber seine Interaktion mit dem Virus stören – „das wären gute Kandidatengene“, sagt er.

Es ist jedoch möglich, dass es neben ACE2-Rezeptoren auch andere biologische Faktoren gibt, die erklären könnten, warum manche Menschen keine SARS-CoV-2-Infektion entwickelt haben.

Einige Menschen haben möglicherweise ein starkes Immunsystem, das antivirale Proteine ​​namens Typ-I-Interferone produziert, die die Replikation des Virus in menschlichen Zellen einschränken. Sie sind die erste Verteidigungslinie des Körpers und treten auf, noch bevor Antikörper gegen das Virus gebildet werden.

Eine andere Hypothese ist, dass Immunzellen, sogenannte Gedächtnis-T-Zellen, die sich möglicherweise während vorbestehender Coronaviren gebildet haben, wie z. B. solche, die Erkältungen verursachen, dazu beitragen, die SARS-CoV-2-Infektion bei bestimmten Patienten zu begrenzen.

Im Jahr 2020, vor der Einführung des Impfstoffs, eine lernen fanden eine höhere Präsenz von Gedächtnis-T-Zellen bei Mitarbeitern des Gesundheitswesens, die dem Virus ausgesetzt waren, aber kein COVID-19 entwickelten.

Gedächtnis-T-Zellen haben das Virus möglicherweise bei mehreren Personen sehr schnell beseitigt. Aber es gibt keine Garantie dafür, dass diese Menschen vor zukünftigen Infektionen geschützt sind. „Tatsächlich wissen wir, dass sich einige mit ansteckenderen Varianten und/oder vielleicht einer höheren Dosis des Virus infiziert haben“, sagt er. Kleine MainiVirusimmunologe am University College London und einer der Autoren der Studie.

Wenn ihre Studie Spuren von genetischer Resistenz aufdeckt, hofft Casanova, dass die Informationen zur Entwicklung einer Therapie gegen COVID-19 in ähnlicher Weise verwendet werden könnten CCR5-Inhibitoren zur Behandlung von HIV-Infektionen entwickelt. Aber Entscheidungen über die Entwicklung dieser Therapien, sagt Casanova, werden von der Art der entdeckten mutierten Gene abhängen.

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But she’s possibly among a small group of people who might have genetic resistance to the virus. Scientists are now racing to understand how such resistance to COVID-19 could work—and whether the trait can be harnessed to develop new drugs against the disease.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html1″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”Kaoukaki had already worked alongside other cabin crew members who tested positive without getting sick herself. Then in July 2021 Kaoukaki’s partner contracted a severe case of COVID-19 with high fever and unbearable pain that lasted nearly 10 days. Kaoukaki showed no symptoms, despite the fact that the pair isolated together for two weeks in their studio apartment in Athens, Greece. “},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html2″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”She continued to test negative on multiple PCR and rapid antigen tests, and a test she took 23 days after her partner’s confirmed infection revealed no antibodies in her blood.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html3″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”“Every day I heard [from doctors] that maybe you have COVID,” she says, “but again and again, I tested negative.””},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html4″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”Despite both being vaccinatedher partner got COVID-19 again during the Omicron wave in January. Kaoukaki isolated with him for five days and again showed no symptoms and continued to test negative for the virus. That’s when she began hunting for an explanation.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html5″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”An online article led her to Evangelos Andreakosan immunologist at the Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens. He is part of an international consortium called the COVID Human Genetic Effort that has been looking for genetic variations that might reveal why some people never get COVID-19. “},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html6″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”Although Andreakos and his colleagues didn’t expect to find many such individuals for their study, they were overwhelmed with emails from at least 5,000 volunteers worldwide with stories similar to Kaoukaki’s. Using saliva samples from the 20 percent of people who met their study criteria, Andreakos and his team will be scanning the protein-coding regions of genes in their DNA to spot any mutations that are absent in the genetic sequences from patients who had severe or moderate cases of COVID-19. The hope is that some of these people harbor the secret to COVID-19 resistance.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html7″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”“We expect it to be a rare population,” Andreakos says. “But there are precedents.””},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html8″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”Resistance to other viral infections”},”type”:”h2″},{“id”:”html9″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”For a long time, the outcome of any infection was assumed to depend on the genetic traits of the pathogen.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html10″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”“There used to be a tendency to more think about the pathogen in terms of severity—it’s a severe pathogen or a mild pathogen,” says molecular virologist Johan Nordgren at Sweden’s Linköping University. Relatively less attention was paid to a host and whether their genes affect their ability to fight off an infection, he says.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html11″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”In the last two decades or so, though, scientists have been conducting so-called genome-wide association studies to identify certain genes or regions of DNA that may be linked to specific diseases. They do this by comparing the genetic sequences of infected individuals with those who are healthy and seeking correlations between mutations and resistance. “},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html12″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”In 1996 this method enabled molecular biologist Stephen O’Brien and his colleagues to discover a rare genetic mutation that protects against the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. “},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html13″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”Most people have a protein receptor present primarily on the surface of certain immune cells called the chemokine receptor 5, or CCR5. This receptor allows HIV to bind with and enter the cell. But O’Brien’s team discovered that some people have a mutation that produces a defective receptor. “},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html14″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”To be resistant, an individual needs two copies of this so-called delta-32 mutation—one from each parent. A single copy can still allow the virus to infect cells, although it slows down the patient’s trajectory to developing AIDS.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html15″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”“Delta 32 was a hell of a good example that convinced people that genetics was important and that it was possible to have a genetic resistance,” O’Brien says.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html16″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”Scientists have also tracked down a mutation in a different gene that confers resistance to certain norovirus strains that are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. This mutation prevents noroviruses from entering the cells lining the human digestive tract.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html17″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”“In other words, you either make the port the virus uses to get into the cell, or you do not,” says Lisa Lindesmith, a norovirus researcher at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. “If you don’t, it doesn’t matter how much virus we can give you, you do not get infected.””},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html18″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”While genetic resistance to viral infections isn’t widespread, the fact that it happens at all has ignited interest in similar mutations in COVID-exposed individuals.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html19″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”Genetic underpinnings to COVID-19 resistance”},”type”:”h2″},{“id”:”html20″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”The COVID Human Genetic Effort started recruiting volunteers last year, with a focus on healthcare workers who were exposed to the virus but didn’t get infected, and healthy adults living in a household with a spouse or partner who got sick and experienced moderate or severe COVID-19 symptoms, like Kaoukaki. “},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html21″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”The scientists hypothesized that if these individuals were repeatedly exposed and still escaped infection, they were more likely to carry a mutation that confers resistance to the virus.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html22″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”One promising target is the gene that codes for the human ACE2 receptor and those that regulate its expression on cell surfaces. The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 must bind to ACE2 to enter cells and infect them. A mutation that alters its structure and expression might block the virus from binding and prevent infection. “},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html23″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”So far, ACE2 seems to be our best bet, says Jean-Laurent Casanova, a geneticist at Rockefeller University who is part of the COVID Human Genetic Effort. Genetic variations that allow ACE2 to function normally but disrupt its interaction with the virus—”these would be good candidate genes,” he says.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html24″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”It’s possible, though, that there are other biological factors aside from the ACE2 receptor that could explain why some people didn’t develop a SARS-CoV-2 infection.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html25″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”Some people may possess a robust immune system that produces antiviral proteins called type I interferons, which limit the virus from replicating in human cells. They’re the body’s first line of defense and appear even before antibodies form against the virus. “},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html26″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”Another hypothesis is that immune cells called memory T cells that may have formed during previously encountered coronaviruses, like those that cause the common cold, help limit SARS-CoV-2 infection in certain patients.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html27″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”In 2020, prior to the vaccine rollout, one study found greater presence of memory T cells in healthcare workers who were exposed to the virus but who didn’t develop COVID-19.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html28″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”The memory T-cells may have cleared the virus very quickly for a few people. But it’s no guarantee these people will be protected from future infections. “In fact, we know some have gone on to get infected with more infectious variants and/or perhaps with a higher dose of the virus,” says Mala Maini, a viral immunologist at the University College London and one of the study authors.”},”type”:”p”},{“id”:”html29″,”cntnt”:{“mrkup”:”If their study does turn up clues to genetic resistance, Casanova hopes that information could be used to develop therapeutics against COVID-19, similar to the CCR5 inhibitors designed to treat HIV infections. But decisions to develop these therapies, Casanova says, will depend on the nature of the mutated genes discovered.”},”type”:”p”}],”cid”:”drn:src:natgeo:unison::prod:c4069afc-4a79-4c87-842a-914cbacf8c40″,”cntrbGrp”:[{“contributors”:[{“displayName”:”Priyanka Runwal”}],”title”:”By”,”rl”:”Writer”}],”mode”:”richtext”,”dscrptn”:”Thousands of people repeatedly exposed to the virus never got sick. Scientists hope their DNA may hold clues to new kinds of treatments.”,”enableAds”:true,”endbug”:true,”isMetered”:true,”isUserAuthed”:false,”ldMda”:{“cmsType”:”image”,”hasCopyright”:true,”id”:”3bcf8cfe-db71-40c3-bcca-dd141a890e76″,”lines”:3,”positionMetaBottom”:true,”showMore”:true,”caption”:”Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a patient’s cells (green) heavily infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus particles (purple).”,”credit”:”Photograph by NIAID, NIH, Science Source”,”image”:{“crps”:[{“nm”:”raw”,”aspRto”:1.5003663003663004,”url”:” scanning electron micrograph of an apoptotic cell (green) heavily infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (purple), isolated from a patient sample. Image captured at the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.”,”crdt”:”Photograph by NIAID, NIH, Science Source”,”dsc”:”Colorized scanning electron micrograph of an apoptotic cell (green) heavily infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (purple), isolated from a patient sample. Image captured at the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”Colorized scanning electron micrograph of an apoptotic cell (green) heavily infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (purple), isolated from a patient sample. Image captured at the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.”},”imageAlt”:”Colorized scanning electron micrograph of an apoptotic cell (green) heavily infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (purple), isolated from a patient sample. Image captured at the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.”,”imageSrc”:” min read”,”schma”:{“athrs”:[{“name”:”Priyanka Runwal”}],”cnnicl”:” omicron, BA.2, covid resistance”,”lg”:” Geographic”,”abt”:”Coronavirus”,”sclDsc”:”Thousands of people repeatedly exposed to the virus never got sick. Scientists hope their DNA may hold clues to new kinds of treatments.”,”sclImg”:” some people resistant to COVID-19? Geneticists are on the hunt.”},”sctn”:”Science”,”sctnLbls”:[{“name”:”Science”,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” Coverage”,”type”:”series”,”uri”:” some people resistant to covid-19? geneticists are on the hunt.”,”share_method”:”facebook”},”emailIcon”:”email__filled”,”email”:”mailto:?subject=Are%20some%20people%20resistant%20to%20COVID-19%3F%20Geneticists%20are%20on%20the%20hunt.&body=Thousands%20of%20people%20repeatedly%20exposed%20to%20the%20virus%20never%20got%20sick.%20Scientists%20hope%20their%20DNA%20may%20hold%20clues%20to%20new%20kinds%20of%20treatments.%0A%0Ahttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.nationalgeographic.com%2Fscience%2Farticle%2Fare-some-people-resistant-to-covid-19-geneticists-are-on-the-hunt”,”emailLabel”:”Email”,”emailButtonTracking”:{“event_name”:”share”,”share_content_type”:”article”,”content_title”:”are some people resistant to covid-19? geneticists are on the hunt.”,”share_method”:”email”},”twitter”:” some people resistant to covid-19? geneticists are on the hunt.”,”share_method”:”twitter”}},”title”:”Are some people resistant to COVID-19? 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The family have been forced cull all minks due to a government decision Wednesday this week. The world’s largest mink fur producer, Denmark, is to mass cull millions of minks after mutated forms of coronavirus spread to humans. Some 207 mink farms in Jutland region are affected as human cases in the region are on the surge and a regional lockdown has been announced to curb the infection. The minks pictured here are Corona negative but must be culled anyhow. The dead minks will be used in incinerators which produce heat or energy. (Photo by Ole Jensen/Getty Images)”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”gettyimages-1229494160-594×594″},”sections”:[{“name”:”Animals”,”id”:”fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” Watch”,”id”:”8de8cc4e-e0d1-3b72-8c7a-dac037e03cb4″,”type”:”series”,”uri”:” delayed disclosing likely COVID-19 animal spillover event”,”link”:” century of unregulated harvesting for its gigantic shell has left the horse conch far more vulnerable than scientists realized.”,”img”:{“crps”:[{“nm”:”raw”,”aspRto”:1.5025678650036685,”url”:” by Michael Patrick O’Neill, BluePlanetArchive”,”dsc”:”Florida horse conch, Triplofusus papillosus (formerly Pleuroploca gigantea), Lake Worth Lagoon, Palm Beach, Florida, USA, Atlantic Ocean”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”Horse Conch 01″},”sections”:[{“name”:”Environment”,”id”:”623ce370-3e67-3fb2-b9a5-070ceb9b2de5″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” of the world’s biggest sea snails at risk of extinction”,”link”:” This Next”}],”cmsType”:”EnhancedFrame”},{“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-ad-frame1″,”mods”:[{“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-ad”,”cmsType”:”StackModule”,”align”:”left”,”edgs”:[{“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-ad-tile”,”cmsType”:”AdTile”,”pos”:”infinitefeed”}]}],”cmsType”:”EnhancedFrame”},{“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1″,”fullWidth”:true,”mods”:[{“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-headline”,”cmsType”:”StackModule”,”align”:”left”,”edgs”:[{“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-headline-tile”,”cmsType”:”HeadlineTile”,”heading”:”Go Further”}]},{“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals”,”cmsType”:”CarouselModule”,”centerHeading”:true,”edgs”:[{“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile”,”cmsType”:”RegularStandardPrismTile”,”cId”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-animals-tile_bd610c25-9d51-493d-ac86-dd7c9607533f”,”description”:”A Canadian caribou herd is making a comeback—but the rescue plan is controversial.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/to-save-caribou-indigenous-people-confront-difficult-choices”,”text”:”natgeo.ctaText.read”,”icon”:”article”}],”img”:{“crps”:[{“nm”:”raw”,”aspRto”:1.501466275659824,”url”:” by Ryan Dickie”,”dsc”:”Caribou standing in the Snow – ‘The first caribou captured in 2022 moments after processing at the Klinse-Za maternity pen’.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”KZ-009.jpg”},”abstract”:”A Canadian caribou herd is making a comeback—but the rescue plan is controversial.”,”title”:”To save caribou, Indigenous people confront difficult choices”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Animals”,”id”:”fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” shine a spotlight on a months-long delay in publicly disclosing suspected mink-to-human spread in the U.S.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/government-emails-reveal-cdc-secrecy-around-likely-animal-spillover-of-covid”,”text”:”natgeo.ctaText.read”,”icon”:”article”}],”img”:{“crps”:[{“nm”:”raw”,”aspRto”:1.5003663003663004,”url”:” by Ole Jensen, Getty Images”,”dsc”:”Disaster In Denmark As Covid-19 Mutation Detected On Mink Farms HERNING, DENMARK NOVEMBER 06: Minks on a farm owned by the family Rønnow seen on November 6, 2020 in Herning, Denmark. The family have been forced cull all minks due to a government decision Wednesday this week. The world’s largest mink fur producer, Denmark, is to mass cull millions of minks after mutated forms of coronavirus spread to humans. Some 207 mink farms in Jutland region are affected as human cases in the region are on the surge and a regional lockdown has been announced to curb the infection. The minks pictured here are Corona negative but must be culled anyhow. The dead minks will be used in incinerators which produce heat or energy. (Photo by Ole Jensen/Getty Images)”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”gettyimages-1229494160-594×594″},”abstract”:”Emails shine a spotlight on a months-long delay in publicly disclosing suspected mink-to-human spread in the U.S.”,”title”:”CDC delayed disclosing likely COVID-19 animal spillover event”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Animals”,”id”:”fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” Watch”,”id”:”8de8cc4e-e0d1-3b72-8c7a-dac037e03cb4″,”type”:”series”,”uri”:” the Peruvian Amazon, native stingless bees are helping beekeepers and their communities by producing honey and pollinating local plants.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” by Ana Elisa Sotelo”,”dsc”:”Inside the Hive: Bees surround pods made of plant resin where honey is stored.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”7X7A6147″},”abstract”:”In the Peruvian Amazon, native stingless bees are helping beekeepers and their communities by producing honey and pollinating local plants.”,”title”:”These stingless bees make ‘miracle’ honey”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Animals”,”id”:”fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” considered a gardener’s best friend, earthworms are harming native species in forests where they don’t belong.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” by Stephen Dalton, Minden Pictures”,”dsc”:”Earthworm exposed after removal of covering stone”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”Minden_00771018″},”abstract”:”Often considered a gardener’s best friend, earthworms are harming native species in forests where they don’t belong.”,”title”:”Earthworms are hurting insects in much of North America”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Animals”,”id”:”fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” wild dolphin named Kylie may be able to “converse” with porpoises, a striking example of cross-species communication.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” by Scotland: The Big Picture, Minden Pictures”,”dsc”:”Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) jumping out the water, Shetland, Scotland, UK, January.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”Minden_90812764″},”abstract”:”A wild dolphin named Kylie may be able to “converse” with porpoises, a striking example of cross-species communication.”,”title”:”Wild dolphin observed ‘talking’ with harbor porpoises”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Animals”,”id”:”fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” experiment that uses snakes’ chemical senses “could change people’s opinions of reptiles away from that of slow, dumb, dull, instinct machines,” scientist says.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” by George Sanker, Nature Picture Library”,”dsc”:”Eastern garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. July.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”naturepl_01650452″},”abstract”:”An experiment that uses snakes’ chemical senses “could change people’s opinions of reptiles away from that of slow, dumb, dull, instinct machines,” scientist says.”,”title”:”Controversial study says snakes can recognize themselves”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Animals”,”id”:”fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” century of unregulated harvesting for its gigantic shell has left the horse conch far more vulnerable than scientists realized.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/one-of-the-worlds-biggest-sea-snails-at-risk-of-extinction”,”text”:”natgeo.ctaText.read”,”icon”:”article”}],”img”:{“crps”:[{“nm”:”raw”,”aspRto”:1.5025678650036685,”url”:” by Michael Patrick O’Neill, BluePlanetArchive”,”dsc”:”Florida horse conch, Triplofusus papillosus (formerly Pleuroploca gigantea), Lake Worth Lagoon, Palm Beach, Florida, USA, Atlantic Ocean”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”Horse Conch 01″},”abstract”:”A century of unregulated harvesting for its gigantic shell has left the horse conch far more vulnerable than scientists realized.”,”title”:”One of the world’s biggest sea snails at risk of extinction”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Environment”,”id”:”623ce370-3e67-3fb2-b9a5-070ceb9b2de5″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” limit warming to manageable levels, the world has only a few years to stop using fossil fuels completely.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” view of wind turbines in a brown rocky desert landscape”,”crdt”:”Photograph by David Guttenfelder, Nat Geo Image Collection”,”dsc”:”Aerial view of wind turbines in Mojave, California.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”un-mitigation-report”},”abstract”:”To limit warming to manageable levels, the world has only a few years to stop using fossil fuels completely.”,”title”:”‘It’s now or never’: UN climate report’s 4 urgent takeaways”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Environment”,”id”:”623ce370-3e67-3fb2-b9a5-070ceb9b2de5″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” Possible”,”id”:”938b311e-8648-368e-8058-12100da9e069″,”type”:”series”,”uri”:” are an essential part of our ecosystem—see how you can make a difference by planting your own.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” Geographic”,”dsc”:”New”,”ext”:”JPG”,”ttl”:”Wildflowers: Hero Photo”},”abstract”:”Wildflowers are an essential part of our ecosystem—see how you can make a difference by planting your own.”,”title”:”How to spark your own ‘Super Bloom’ of Wildflowers”,”tags”:[“Paid Content”]},{“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile”,”cmsType”:”RegularStandardPrismTile”,”cId”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-history-tile_66008765-ecea-407a-a4ca-d5c40c17a830″,”description”:”It could begin as early as 2024. The ecological harm would be vast—but scientists can’t say yet whether it would be permanent or excessive.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” machine scoops polymetalic nodules and sand from the ocean floor”,”crdt”:”Photograph courtesy ROV-Team, GEOMAR”,”dsc”:”TKTK (can you fill in the blank as to what this machine is) collects polymetallic nodules from the ocean floor from the Clarion Clipperton Zone (CCZ).”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”Deep Sea Mining”},”abstract”:”It could begin as early as 2024. The ecological harm would be vast—but scientists can’t say yet whether it would be permanent or excessive.”,”title”:”Proposed deep-sea mining would kill undiscovered animals”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Environment”,”id”:”623ce370-3e67-3fb2-b9a5-070ceb9b2de5″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” science behind recycling your food scraps at home and how it reduces emissions from landfills.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” pull out raw ingredients and dirt from a composting bucket”,”crdt”:”Photograph by Severin Wohlleben, laif/Redux”,”dsc”:”Benjamin Vidmar shows his compost, July 2017, Norway”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”compost-bucket”},”abstract”:”The science behind recycling your food scraps at home and how it reduces emissions from landfills.”,”title”:”How to compost—and why it’s good for the environment”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Environment”,”id”:”623ce370-3e67-3fb2-b9a5-070ceb9b2de5″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” unexpected ice shelf collapse in East Antarctica, after temperatures spiked 70°F above normal, highlights bigger problems in the West, where one glacier could singlehandedly raise global sea levels several feet.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” by Jim Yungel, NASA Earth Observatory”,”dsc”:”Since October 2009, NASA and its scientific partners have made yearly airborne surveys of Antarctica and Greenland—with occasional trips to Alaska and the Arctic Ocean. The goal is to study changes in the structure and motion of the ice at both poles, and to fill in the gap in data between the ICESat satellite mission (which officially ended in 2010) and the launch of ICESat II around 2016. The plane-based project is called Operation Icebridge. In October and November 2012, the Icebridge team returned to Antarctica for a fourth southern springtime, flying NASA’s DC-8 research plane on roundtrip surveys from Punta Arenas, Chile, to the edges of Antartica and back—flights that can last 11–12 hours. In 2012, the research team put extra emphasis on gathering imagery and data from Thwaites Glacier and Pine Island Glacier; from the ice streams feeding the Ronne and Filchner ice shelves; and the sea ice in the Weddell and Bellingshausen seas, as well as the ice streams flowing into them. Most of the flights covered areas in West Antarctica, where melting and ice motion has been accelerating in recent years. The photograph above shows an edge of the Thwaites Ice Shelf and was taken by Jim Yungel, program manager for the Airborne Topographic Mapper, a laser altimeter carried by the DC-8. The blue areas visible on the shelf edge are areas of denser, compressed ice. Over time, the weight of polar glaciers and ice sheets compresses ice and squeezes out the gases and air. Thwaites Glacier is rapidly changing, and the Icebridge team has surveyed it multiple times. In research published in 2011, scientists from Columbia University revealed that the glacier is pinned to an underwater ridge just offshore in Pine Island Bay, and that ridge helps pile up the ice and slow its advance into the sea. But the connection is weakening, and researchers project that Thwaites will come unpinned and start advancing much faster within the next 20 years or so.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”thwaites-glacier”},”abstract”:”An unexpected ice shelf collapse in East Antarctica, after temperatures spiked 70°F above normal, highlights bigger problems in the West, where one glacier could singlehandedly raise global sea levels several feet.”,”title”:”Antarctic ice shelves are shattering. How fast will seas rise?”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Environment”,”id”:”623ce370-3e67-3fb2-b9a5-070ceb9b2de5″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” Khmer Empire built the temples of Angkor amid the lush forests of Cambodia nearly 900 years ago, just as a religious shift from Hinduism to Buddhism was beginning.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” Angkor Wat temple was erected in the 12th century by Khmer king Suryavarman II to replicate Hinduism’s holy Mount Meru.”,”crdt”:”Ashit Desai/Getty Images”,”dsc”:”The Angkor Wat temple was erected in the 12th century by Khmer king Suryavarman II to replicate Hinduism’s holy Mount Meru.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”Heavenly towers”},”abstract”:”The Khmer Empire built the temples of Angkor amid the lush forests of Cambodia nearly 900 years ago, just as a religious shift from Hinduism to Buddhism was beginning.”,”title”:”Angkor Wat, the world’s biggest religious complex, served two faiths”,”tags”:[{“name”:”History Magazine”,”id”:”9e8034f6-2e16-3b86-998b-56f8ff9dffb7″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” an honor nearly as old as the major league itself—but in 1910, President William Howard Taft transformed the first pitch into the popular ceremony it is today.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” an honor nearly as old as the major league itself—but in 1910, President William Howard Taft transformed the first pitch into the popular ceremony it is today.”,”title”:”How the first pitch became baseball’s Opening Day tradition”,”tags”:[{“name”:”History & Culture”,”id”:”b0c8dd52-23a8-34c0-a940-f46792bc9e70″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” mistakes and miscalculations led to the sinking of the ‘unsinkable’ RMS Titanic 110 years ago, only a few days into its maiden voyage across the Atlantic.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” artist’s rendering of the Titanic hitting the iceberg, though the actual collision was likely more glancing.”,”crdt”:”Album / Art Resource, NY”,”dsc”:”An artist’s rendering of the Titanic hitting the iceberg, though the actual collision was likely more glancing.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”First Warnings or Failed Attempts”},”abstract”:”Multiple mistakes and miscalculations led to the sinking of the ‘unsinkable’ RMS Titanic 110 years ago, only a few days into its maiden voyage across the Atlantic.”,”title”:”Despite the warning ‘Iceberg, Right Ahead!’ Titanic was doomed”,”tags”:[{“name”:”History Magazine”,”id”:”9e8034f6-2e16-3b86-998b-56f8ff9dffb7″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” could locate the remote South Atlantic archipelago on a map. But tensions brewed for 150 years over who owned it—and still simmer now, 40 years after the war”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” Images via Getty Images”,”dsc”:”The Falklands War 1982: Argentine prisoners of war at Port Stanley, capital of the Falkland Islands, waiting to be repatriated via Montevideo, 15th June 1982.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”Argentine POWs”},”abstract”:”Few could locate the remote South Atlantic archipelago on a map. But tensions brewed for 150 years over who owned it—and still simmer now, 40 years after the war”,”title”:”The improbable Falklands War still resonates decades later”,”tags”:[{“name”:”History & Culture”,”id”:”b0c8dd52-23a8-34c0-a940-f46792bc9e70″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” fierce advocate for the downtrodden during her husband’s presidency, Roosevelt spent her later years pushing for human rights—pioneering work that still resounds today.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” Eleanor Roosevelt”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”Eleanor Roosevelt”},”abstract”:”A fierce advocate for the downtrodden during her husband’s presidency, Roosevelt spent her later years pushing for human rights—pioneering work that still resounds today.”,”title”:”Eleanor Roosevelt broke the mold of what a First Lady could be”,”tags”:[{“name”:”History & Culture”,”id”:”b0c8dd52-23a8-34c0-a940-f46792bc9e70″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” overlooked in life, Ann Axtell Morris contributed to a growing understanding of the lives and culture of ancient Native Americans and Indigenous Mexicans.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” man and woman archaeologist couple pose for a black and white portrait in 1924″,”crdt”:”Photograph by Jerome O. Kilmartin”,”dsc”:”E. H. Morris and Ann Axtell Morris, Chichen Itza, 1924.”,”ext”:”jpg”},”abstract”:”While overlooked in life, Ann Axtell Morris contributed to a growing understanding of the lives and culture of ancient Native Americans and Indigenous Mexicans.”,”title”:”This ‘archaeologist’s wife’ was a pioneering scholar”,”tags”:[{“name”:”History & Culture”,”id”:”b0c8dd52-23a8-34c0-a940-f46792bc9e70″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” & Culture”,”pageInfo”:{“endCursor”:”NTpSRmxPUVY4d0kwbEVPa1JTVG54a2NtNDZjM0pqT201aGRHZGxienAxYm1semIyNDZPbkJ5YjJRNlpETTVPV1F4WlRrdFlXRXpaQzAwT1dVeUxUbG1OVFF0WVRjek1XVmlPVEpsTVdZM0kxTlBVbFE2YjNKcFoybHVZV3hRZFdKc2FYTm9aV1JFWVhSbGZERTJORGczTXpnMU9UWXlOVFE9″,”hasNextPage”:true},”templateContext”:”eyJjb250ZW50VHlwZSI6IlVuaXNvbkFydGljbGVDb250ZW50IiwidmFyaWFibGVzIjp7ImluY2x1ZGVNZWRpYUNvbnRlbnRzIjoidHJ1ZSIsImxvY2F0b3IiOiIvc2NpZW5jZS9hcnRpY2xlL2FyZS1zb21lLXBlb3BsZS1yZXNpc3RhbnQtdG8tY292aWQtMTktZ2VuZXRpY2lzdHMtYXJlLW9uLXRoZS1odW50IiwicG9ydGZvbGlvIjoibmF0Z2VvIiwicXVlcnlUeXBlIjoiTE9DQVRPUiJ9LCJtb2R1bGVJZCI6bnVsbH0″},{“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science”,”cmsType”:”CarouselModule”,”centerHeading”:true,”edgs”:[{“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile”,”cmsType”:”RegularStandardPrismTile”,”cId”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile_c4069afc-4a79-4c87-842a-914cbacf8c40″,”description”:”Thousands of people repeatedly exposed to the virus never got sick. Scientists hope their DNA may hold clues to new kinds of treatments.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/are-some-people-resistant-to-covid-19-geneticists-are-on-the-hunt”,”text”:”natgeo.ctaText.read”,”icon”:”article”}],”img”:{“crps”:[{“nm”:”raw”,”aspRto”:1.5003663003663004,”url”:” scanning electron micrograph of an apoptotic cell (green) heavily infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (purple), isolated from a patient sample. Image captured at the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.”,”crdt”:”Photograph by NIAID, NIH, Science Source”,”dsc”:”Colorized scanning electron micrograph of an apoptotic cell (green) heavily infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (purple), isolated from a patient sample. Image captured at the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”Colorized scanning electron micrograph of an apoptotic cell (green) heavily infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (purple), isolated from a patient sample. Image captured at the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.”},”abstract”:”Thousands of people repeatedly exposed to the virus never got sick. Scientists hope their DNA may hold clues to new kinds of treatments.”,”title”:”Are some people resistant to COVID-19? Geneticists are on the hunt.”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Science”,”id”:”2af51eeb-09a8-3bcf-8467-6b2a08edb76c”,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” Coverage”,”id”:”a92c48ec-5e34-3b63-a1e1-2726bfc4c34e”,”type”:”series”,”uri”:” are an essential part of our ecosystem—see how you can make a difference by planting your own.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” Geographic”,”dsc”:”New”,”ext”:”JPG”,”ttl”:”Wildflowers: Hero Photo”},”abstract”:”Wildflowers are an essential part of our ecosystem—see how you can make a difference by planting your own.”,”title”:”How to spark your own ‘Super Bloom’ of Wildflowers”,”tags”:[“Paid Content”]},{“id”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile”,”cmsType”:”RegularStandardPrismTile”,”cId”:”natgeo-globalpromo-frame1-science-tile_4b0fd8ae-ee1d-42e0-a2e0-17ac7558b9d8″,”description”:”Experiments suggest that metabolism could have begun spontaneously on our primordial planet—and that scientists may need to rethink how we define life.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” tufa formations on a gray day at Mono Lake.”,”crdt”:”Photograph by Robert Harding Picture Library, Nat Geo Image Collection”,”dsc”:”Tufa formations, Mono Lake, California, United States of America, North America”,”ext”:”jpg”},”abstract”:”Experiments suggest that metabolism could have begun spontaneously on our primordial planet—and that scientists may need to rethink how we define life.”,”title”:”‘Impossible’ chemistry may reveal origins of life on Earth”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Science”,”id”:”2af51eeb-09a8-3bcf-8467-6b2a08edb76c”,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” not all in your head. But a promising new approach to treatment may offer relief to many sufferers of chronic pain.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” neuroscientist studies how the brain perceives pain.”,”crdt”:”Photograph by Robert Clark, Nat Geo Image Collection”,”dsc”:”Vitaly Napadow, a neuroscientist at Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, studies how the brain perceives pain. To do that, he uses electroencephalography to track the brain wave patterns of patients with chronic lower back pain.”,”ext”:”jpg”},”abstract”:”It’s not all in your head. But a promising new approach to treatment may offer relief to many sufferers of chronic pain.”,”title”:”How you think about physical pain can make it worse”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Science”,”id”:”2af51eeb-09a8-3bcf-8467-6b2a08edb76c”,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” red-purple, and sometimes painful toes were one of the odder symptoms seen early in the pandemic. But experts are debating their cause—and whether COVID-19 is even to blame.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” of toes, red with Chilblains, a painful inflammation of small blood vessels in your skin.”,”crdt”:”Photograph by Science Source”,”dsc”:”Chilblains, also called perniosis. Chilblains are the painful inflammation of small blood vessels in your skin that occur in response to repeated exposure to cold but not freezing air.”,”ext”:”jpg”},”abstract”:”Puffy, red-purple, and sometimes painful toes were one of the odder symptoms seen early in the pandemic. But experts are debating their cause—and whether COVID-19 is even to blame.”,”title”:”Mysterious wave of COVID toes still has scientists stumped”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Science”,”id”:”2af51eeb-09a8-3bcf-8467-6b2a08edb76c”,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” Coverage”,”id”:”a92c48ec-5e34-3b63-a1e1-2726bfc4c34e”,”type”:”series”,”uri”:” in a galaxy that existed just 900 million years after the big bang, the primordial star Earendel could offer a rare window into the early universe if confirmed by follow-up studies.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” Hubble Space Telescope studies the dynamics of celestial entities, the nature of processes which occur in the extreme physical conditions in and between astronomical objects, the history and evolution of the universe, and whether the laws of nature are universal in the space-time continuum without the distortion of the atmosphere that limits terrestrial telescopes.”,”crdt”:”Photograph by NASA”,”dsc”:”The Hubble Space Telescope studies the dynamics of celestial entities, the nature of processes which occur in the extreme physical conditions in and between astronomical objects, the history and evolution of the universe, and whether the laws of nature are universal in the space-time continuum without the distortion of the atmosphere that limits terrestrial telescopes.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”HST”},”abstract”:”Spotted in a galaxy that existed just 900 million years after the big bang, the primordial star Earendel could offer a rare window into the early universe if confirmed by follow-up studies.”,”title”:”Most distant star ever seen found in Hubble image”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Science”,”id”:”2af51eeb-09a8-3bcf-8467-6b2a08edb76c”,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” her Tennessee mountain home, the nature-loving singer says mistreating Earth is like ‘being ugly to your mama.’”,”ctas”:[{“url”:”https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/article/what-dolly-parton-wants-us-to-know-about-the-smoky-mountains”,”text”:”natgeo.ctaText.read”,”icon”:”article”}],”img”:{“crps”:[{“nm”:”raw”,”aspRto”:1.2252083333333332,”url”:” of Dolly On Bus, Los Angeles, 2008″,”crdt”:”Photograph by Gillian Laub”,”dsc”:”Portrait of Dolly On Bus, Los Angeles, 2008″,”ext”:”jpg”},”abstract”:”From her Tennessee mountain home, the nature-loving singer says mistreating Earth is like ‘being ugly to your mama.’”,”title”:”What Dolly Parton wants us to know about the Smokies”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Travel”,”id”:”432c4f83-2d55-3974-b95f-a221c87c0fd1″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” ill-fated queen was a flower fanatic. Here’s how her Versailles garden dazzled then and continues to inspire today.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” aerial view of the bosquet de la reine at the Palace of Versailles”,”crdt”:”Courtesy Chateau Versailles”,”dsc”:”An aerial view of the bosquet de la reine at the Palace of Versailles”,”ext”:”jpg”},”abstract”:”The ill-fated queen was a flower fanatic. Here’s how her Versailles garden dazzled then and continues to inspire today.”,”title”:”The global roots of Marie-Antoinette’s secret garden”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Travel”,”id”:”432c4f83-2d55-3974-b95f-a221c87c0fd1″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” Heritage”,”id”:”ba02c079-e730-3676-b4a9-8b8dfba9bcf3″,”type”:”series”,”uri”:” the high desert of New Mexico, these sprawling badlands draw hikers and photographers with otherworldly “hoodoos” and a wealth of fossils.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” by Efrain Padro, Alamy Stock”,”dsc”:”Mushroom rocks and boulders, Bisti De-Na-Zin Wilderness Area, New Mexico USA”,”ext”:”JPG”,”ttl”:”Mushroom rocks Bisti De-Na-Zin Wilderness”},”abstract”:”In the high desert of New Mexico, these sprawling badlands draw hikers and photographers with otherworldly “hoodoos” and a wealth of fossils.”,”title”:”Dazzling rock formations stand where dinosaurs once roamed”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Travel”,”id”:”432c4f83-2d55-3974-b95f-a221c87c0fd1″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” art, and history converge at these Islamic places of worship. We learn how architectural feats and design details chronicle Istanbul’s history.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” of the Ortaköy Mosque”,”crdt”:”Photograph by Alba Cambeiro”,”dsc”:”The Ortaköy Mosque was completed in 1855 to serve as the Grand Imperial Mosque for the Ottoman Sultan Abdülmecid. It was designed by the Armenian architect Garabet Balyan and his son Nigoğayos Balyanl.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”Ortaköy Mosque”},”abstract”:”Faith, art, and history converge at these Islamic places of worship. We learn how architectural feats and design details chronicle Istanbul’s history.”,”title”:”What can we learn from Istanbul’s 3,000 mosques?”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Travel”,”id”:”432c4f83-2d55-3974-b95f-a221c87c0fd1″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” pinched, and talked down to, flight attendants learned to fight for their rights. They still keep passengers safer in the skies.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” photo of TWA Flight Attendants with signs during a Demonstration”,”crdt”:”Photograph by Bettmann Archive, Getty Images”,”dsc”:”Twenty uniformed Trans World Airlines flight attendants picket in San Francisco for the right to fly at age 35. The attendants, threatening to strike, were protesting a TWA requirement that flight attendants retire at 35, as well as other issues, including wage increases and shorter hours.”,”ext”:”jpg”},”abstract”:”Groped, pinched, and talked down to, flight attendants learned to fight for their rights. They still keep passengers safer in the skies.”,”title”:”The time flight attendants said: ‘Go fly yourself!’”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Travel”,”id”:”432c4f83-2d55-3974-b95f-a221c87c0fd1″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” History Month”,”id”:”151b9efc-42ea-3125-a863-60eaba9e2a2a”,”type”:”series”,”uri”:” spring with these breathtaking landscapes in peak bloom.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” of California Poppy during 2016 super bloom at Lake Elsinore”,”crdt”:”Photograph by RMFstock, Alamy Stock Photo”,”dsc”:”Hillside of California Poppy during 2016 super bloom at Lake Elsinore”,”ext”:”jpg”},”abstract”:”Embrace spring with these breathtaking landscapes in peak bloom.”,”title”:”10 of the world’s best destinations for blooms”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Travel”,”id”:”432c4f83-2d55-3974-b95f-a221c87c0fd1″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” More”,”url”:” Exclusive Content”,”cards”:[{“id”:”natgeo-default-tilestack-m1-t1″,”cmsType”:”FeaturedContentTile”,”cId”:”natgeo-default-tilestack-m1-t1_bb905f41-79ef-4145-bbdd-8cfb82dac97d”,”description”:”COVID-19 is a reminder of their destructive power, but they’re crucial to humans’ development and survival.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” is a reminder of their destructive power, but they’re crucial to humans’ development and survival.”,”theme”:”dark”,”title”:”How viruses shape our world”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Magazine”,”id”:”9af83c1e-1fdc-3710-b252-c42eedb1b7c1″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” about the dogs’ welfare and declining betting revenue have led tracks across the country to close in recent decades.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” profile of a greyhound”,”crdt”:”Photograph by Erika Larsen”,”dsc”:”tktk”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”greyhound-racing”},”abstract”:”Concerns about the dogs’ welfare and declining betting revenue have led tracks across the country to close in recent decades.”,”theme”:”dark”,”title”:”The era of greyhound racing in the U.S. is coming to an end”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Animals”,”id”:”fa010584-7bbf-3e92-90f9-586bb27fce94″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” invaders. Benevolent vegetarians. Climate refugees. As scientific exploration has advanced, so have creative interpretations of the red planet and its potential residents.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” preacher shaking hands with human.”,”crdt”:”Photograph by CHRONICLE/ALAMY STOCK PHOTO”,”dsc”:”1939 “The Man From Mars” Drawn by Frank R. Paul for Fantastic Adventures, this Martian is telepathic and can retract his eyes and nose to protect them from freezing.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”mars-rover-cameras-fantastic-adventures”},”abstract”:”Scheming invaders. Benevolent vegetarians. Climate refugees. As scientific exploration has advanced, so have creative interpretations of the red planet and its potential residents.”,”theme”:”dark”,”title”:”See how people have imagined life on Mars through history”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Magazine”,”id”:”9af83c1e-1fdc-3710-b252-c42eedb1b7c1″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” to land on Mars this month, the Perseverance rover will search for signs of past life and test new technologies for supporting future human missions.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” to land on Mars this month, the Perseverance rover will search for signs of past life and test new technologies for supporting future human missions.”,”theme”:”dark”,”title”:”See how NASA’s new Mars rover will explore the red planet”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Magazine”,”type”:”sources”}]},{“id”:”natgeo-default-tilestack-m1-t1″,”cmsType”:”FeaturedContentTile”,”cId”:”natgeo-default-tilestack-m1-t1_82e337a0-0b07-4560-b212-a97ccfe610a1″,”description”:”The dusty red planet has fascinated us for centuries. Even as we learn more, its mysteries keep us in suspense.”,”ctas”:[{“url”:” photograph of Mars surface with dark spots.”,”crdt”:”Photograph by E.C. Slipher, LOWELL OBSERVATORY ARCHIVES”,”dsc”:”Early, blurry views of Mars inspired stories of canal-building aliens.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”mars-rover-cameras-early-photo-mars”},”abstract”:”The dusty red planet has fascinated us for centuries. Even as we learn more, its mysteries keep us in suspense.”,”theme”:”dark”,”title”:”Why are people so dang obsessed with Mars?”,”tags”:[{“name”:”Magazine”,”id”:”9af83c1e-1fdc-3710-b252-c42eedb1b7c1″,”type”:”sources”,”uri”:” of people repeatedly exposed to the virus never got sick. Scientists hope their DNA may hold clues to new kinds of treatments.”,”id”:”drn:src:natgeo:unison::prod:c4069afc-4a79-4c87-842a-914cbacf8c40″,”mdfdDt”:”2022-04-07T15:44:14.180Z”,”ttl”:”Are some people resistant to COVID-19? Geneticists are on the hunt.”,”sctn”:”Science”,”sclDsc”:”Thousands of people repeatedly exposed to the virus never got sick. Scientists hope their DNA may hold clues to new kinds of treatments.”,”sclImg”:” some people resistant to COVID-19? Geneticists are on the hunt.”,”adKvps”:{“objid”:”drn:src:natgeo:unison::prod:c4069afc-4a79-4c87-842a-914cbacf8c40″},”pgTxnmy”:{“sources”:[“Science”],”series”:[“Coronavirus Coverage”],”subjects”:[“Coronavirus”,”Genetics”,”Public Health”]},”hreflngs”:[{“lcl”:”en-us”,”url”:” Coverage”,”othrSbjs”:”Genetics, Public Health”},”cntrbGrp”:[{“contributors”:[{“displayName”:”Priyanka Runwal”}],”title”:”By”,”rl”:”Writer”}],”pbDt”:”2022-04-07T15:45:12.460Z”,”ldMda”:{“cmsType”:”image”,”hasCopyright”:true,”id”:”3bcf8cfe-db71-40c3-bcca-dd141a890e76″,”lines”:3,”positionMetaBottom”:true,”showMore”:true,”caption”:”Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a patient’s cells (green) heavily infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus particles (purple).”,”credit”:”Photograph by NIAID, NIH, Science Source”,”image”:{“crps”:[{“nm”:”raw”,”aspRto”:1.5003663003663004,”url”:” scanning electron micrograph of an apoptotic cell (green) heavily infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (purple), isolated from a patient sample. Image captured at the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.”,”crdt”:”Photograph by NIAID, NIH, Science Source”,”dsc”:”Colorized scanning electron micrograph of an apoptotic cell (green) heavily infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (purple), isolated from a patient sample. Image captured at the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.”,”ext”:”jpg”,”ttl”:”Colorized scanning electron micrograph of an apoptotic cell (green) heavily infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (purple), isolated from a patient sample. Image captured at the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.”},”imageAlt”:”Colorized scanning electron micrograph of an apoptotic cell (green) heavily infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (purple), isolated from a patient sample. Image captured at the NIAID Integrated Research Facility (IRF) in Fort Detrick, Maryland.”,”imageSrc”:”

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